Early Steam Power Steam-Powered Mill First invented by ancient Greeks – who applied water to power wheel Cistern monks applied principle to milling grain into flour. Mechanization applied to other tasks as the technology spread throughout Europe (spinning silk, boring the barrels from cannons and muskets, and making gunpowder) Relevant video: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=AZ-5GCkV_TU
Mechanization of Textile Industry Spinning Jenny Background: In 1700s, Britain had to compete with cheap textiles from its various colonies, especially India. Merchants want to increase rate of production Mechanized handloom (1733), spinning Jenny (weave multiple threads at one time), coupled with steam power -> doubled production time
Steam Engine Background: much of Britain deforested from the water- powered ripsaw. Looked to coal as new energy source, but it was very dirty. 1783: smelting technique (rolling and puddling) removed impurities and made stronger product (coke). Coke could withstand higher steam pressure. 1769: two chambered steam engine developed to mine coal Once new steam engines implemented in textile industry – productivity increased by a factor of 30 times
Transportation revolution 1804: First steam-powered locomotive 1830’s railroads built across Europe and US Impact: Power of state increase as they financed the building of tracks Settlement of interiors Travel time reduced by 90 percent Link country-side to cities, production areas to markets and raw materials, links interiors to coasts Prices of products decrease, increased sales, increased production, new jobs, more disposable income –. Higher standard of living -> reinforcing cycle
Automobile: Technological System Early 1880s, cars, using diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines, were developed and sold. 4000 cars were sold in 1900; 895,000 in 1915 and 3.7 million by 1927. The car was as much a technological innovation as a management innovation Henry Ford perfected the assembly line as he tried to standardize the production of cars. Prior to his efforts it took 12 hours to assemble a Model T car. He reduced that time to 93 minutes and by 1927, he further reduced the time to 24 seconds. Ford developed a technological system – organizational structure to secure materials, assemble cars, market cars. Cars itself is an technological system – thousands of parts that integrate fuel, engine, transmission, power trains, brakes, suspension, lights, etc.. There is a feedback loop shaping the technological system: manufacturers, distributors, sales people, and users.
Automobile: Technological System Automobile industry foster other technological innovations: balloon tires, headlights, and ancillary technology such as traffic signals (which required government control and involvement) Gas stations and repair shops became part of the technological system 1915, the car loan and the trade-in were developed as marketing innovations Automobile manufacturing spurred industrialization around the world, creating suburbia – and many other social consequences. Can you name some?
Electricity as Technological System Electrifications shows how technical progress can overwhelms and establish new social and political orders 1900s – invention of techniques to produce and distribute electric currents: battery, dynamo, and copper wire industry. At first electricity was private in the U.S. In WW1, US Congress needed to manufacture gunpowder, so they authorized construction of a hydroelectric station in Alabama. After war finished, US government focused on completing the Wilson Dam – large dams affect public interest. 1933, TVA established by Pres. Roosevelt. Remain a point of contention - should it be private or public. This debate is still being argued today? What do you think?
Airplanes Wight Brothers Plane 1903 Wright brothers took flight. The technology built upon existing inventions gasoline, internal combustion engine. By WWI, planes were used in combat. 1920’s planes used to carry mail and by 1930s passenger airlines were in use. Tourism and recreation were revolutionized. Can you name another field? Governments got involved again, constructing passenger terminals, standardized mail delivery, and government started own airlines as well (in addition to private ones)
Industrialization of the Home Vintage appliance advertisement Dryers, refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, vacuum cleaners (1901), washing machine (1910), gas and electric ovens and ranges, microwave ovens, toasters (1909), coffee makers, etc. Domestic revolution contributed to the women’s liberation movement. Advertisements and marketing created consumer demand Homes are there own technological system. Can you name the parts?
Media and Communication Technologies Radios harnessed multiple technologies to receive and transmit signals, and amplify sound waves 1920s first commercial radio stations in US and Europe. It became new form of entertainment (as well as advertising/marketing). It also became a political tool, used by governments to broadcast propaganda and for espionage. Home entertainment furthered with the development of the phonograph and the rise of technologies in the music recording industry Late 1800s was also the time of the development of the film industry. Technologies to revolutionize this field – projection, voice and sound, colorization, etc. The technology of radio was model for sending pictures via electromagnetic waves – and the development of the TV industry. 1930s commercial television ready for broadcast, but grew exponentially after World War II. Global Media and the global village are now synonymous!