Presentation on theme: "Key Terms – The Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution Flying Shuttle Spinning Jenny Power Loom Cotton Gin Domestic System Factory System James Watt."— Presentation transcript:
Key Terms – The Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution Flying Shuttle Spinning Jenny Power Loom Cotton Gin Domestic System Factory System James Watt Interchangeable Parts Gugliemo Marconi Alessandro Volta Mass Production Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations Supply and Demand Laissez-Faire White collar workers Blue collar workers Robert Fulton George Stephenson Karl Benz Orville and Wilbur Wright Telegraph Alexander Graham Bell
The Industrial Revolution - With the advent of new innovations in manufacturing, the older systems of production could not keep up with the new changes. - Industrial Revolution → the shift from the use of domestic systems of production to those of factory production.
Changes in Textiles - John Kay would invent the flying shuttle → sped up how one would separate threads and weave them together. - Spinners attempted to keep up with the rate at which threads were being separated → spinning jenny would be created → allowed one to spin threads at a significantly faster rate.
Changes in Textiles (cont.) - Power Loom → was able to weave multiple threads together at once. - The power loom would now allow weavers to keep up with the spinners who were producing large amounts of thread in a short amount of time.
Changes in Extraction - With the new means of production, extraction of cotton needed to be increased. - Eli Whitney, after numerous attempts, would create the cotton gin → separated the seeds from the cotton plant without the need of human extraction.
Overarching Changes - With the new inventions becoming larger and larger, homes could not house these new inventions and new spaces were needed. - The Domestic system became obsolete → domestic system is a system in which production occurred within the homes of the workers. - The shift now turned to a factory system → system in which production occurred within factories rather than in homes.
James Watt - Watt → created the first steam engine. - Steam engine would now allow for factories to move away from water sources → factories were previously powered by water. - the steam engine would take on many iterations over time.
Changes in Factory Production - Henry Ford would innovate the factory system within the field of manufacturing with his new ideas. - interchangeable parts → parts that could be used in one machine could be used to replace parts in another. - mass production → system by which workers would work in an assembly line and only take up one aspect of the production method to speed up production.
Gugliemo Marconi - Marconi → inventor of the radio. - The radio would change the lives of many citizens. - Allowed news to be spread at a faster rate, served as a means to make the world smaller now that information traveled at a faster rate.
Alessandro Volta - Volta → created the portable battery. - The battery would allow for machines to become portable and used in different places. - Also allowed for the use of portable devices and gave birth to a new industry.
Adam Smith - Smith → author of the Wealth of Nations → book that gave rise to the capitalist economy and dictated economic trends within capitalism. - believed in laissez-faire economics → government should not intervene in economic affairs - Ideas was based on three laws one of which was supply and demand → theory used to dictate cost. - low supply + high demand = high prices. - high supply + low demand = low prices.
White Collar vs. Blue Collar - The Industrial Revolution would lead to the construction of two social classes. - White Collar → workers who owned factories and worked in offices, were never involved in manual labor. - Blue Collar → workers who worked in the factories and built the machines, were always involved in manual labor.
Why Britain? - The British were at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution for various reasons. 1. had rich reserves of coal and iron, the two primary ingredients for industrialization. 2. access to water ports for easy shipping and energy. 3. a collection of colonies to import raw materials from. 4. wealthy businessmen and entrepreneurs to invest 5. political stability
Changes in Transport - Considering the fact that factories needed to be near waterways, the only means by which to move goods in England efficiently involved the use of waterways. - Problem: - many rivers were unnavigable or were too far from factories. - as a result, canals were built to link the factories to major rivers in England
Improvements to Roads - Roads were constructed poorly during the 18 th and 19 th Centuries. - Roads were mostly dirt roads and these roads would turn into mud once rain would come through an area. - John MacAdam would invent tarmac → combination of gravel and tar that could make a flat road that could withstand the elements.
Robert Fulton and the Steamship - Fulton → invented the steamship engine. - Revolutionized travel across the continent and the world. - shortened long voyages in some cases from 2 months to 2 weeks.
Stephenson and the Railroads -George Stephenson would help invent a smaller version of the steam engine that could be placed on a locomotive. - The first railroad track would be laid down between Manchester and Liverpool. - Soon enough, thousands of miles of track would be laid down in England. - The technology would later spread to the United States and help fuel the Manifest Destiny period of the United States.
Effects of Railroads 1. Encouraged further industrial growth was a fast, cheap way to transport materials and allowed for the construction of other factories farther away from their raw materials 2. Provided millions of new jobs many people were needed for the backbreaking work of leveling land, laying down tracks and building bridges 3. Gave a further boost to agriculture farmers could market their goods in many other cities instead of just the ones that were the closest to them 4. Changed the perception about travel in general people believed travel to be a nuisance and something that was only done when absolutely necessary; now people took jobs in cities and traveled constantly because of the ease and cost efficiency provided by the railroads
Other Innovations - Automobiles → 1885, Karl Benz creates the first automobile powered by an internal-combustion engine. This arrived in conjunction with the first gas powered engine created by Gottlieb Daimler. - Planes → 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright make the first successful flight on the plane they built. This is taken steps further in 1927, when Lindbergh makes a nonstop flight from New York to Paris. - Telegraph → machine that sends sound codes over cables. First transatlantic cable is laid down in Telephone → machine that sends sound waves over cable lines; created by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.