Presentation on theme: "Industrial Revolution Semester 2 – Day 134. Video and Questions 1)How did the use of cast iron drive the first industrial revolution? 2)What powered the."— Presentation transcript:
Industrial Revolution Semester 2 – Day 134
Video and Questions 1)How did the use of cast iron drive the first industrial revolution? 2)What powered the second industrial revolution? 3)What problems did workers in heavy industry have to face? 4)Give an example of how technological revolutions can lead to social change. 5)What was the Crystal Palace?
Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Began in 1780s Contributing Factors – Change in agricultural practices (more food) – Population grew – Capital (ready supply of money)/entrepreneurs – Natural resources were plentiful – Supply of markets for goods
Changes in Cotton Production 18 th century: cottage industry – cotton thread from raw cotton; thread turned into cloth on looms all done in private homes Flying shuttle: made weaving faster Spinning jenny: made thread faster Water-powered loom More efficient machines made the need for factories James Watt improved the steam engine (coal)
Coal and Iron Industries More coal needed for the steam engine Puddling: a new process for producing iron from iron ore – Coke, derived from coal, is used to burn away impurities in crude iron High-quality iron used for new machines and new means of transportation
Railroads Needed for moving resources and goods. Created new jobs Less expensive transportation for lower-priced goods
New Factories Created a new labor system Workers worked in shifts to keep machines constantly producing
Spread of Industrialization Europe: first countries to industrialize were Belgium, France and the German states North America: – Large population – Transportation system – Robert Fulton: 1 st paddle-wheel steamboat – Women and girls worked in textile factories – Families were employed to work in factories
Social Impact in Europe Cities and towns grew dramatically More food = larger populations Poor living conditions due to overpopulation Industrial Middle Class: made up of people who built factories, bought machines, and figured out where markets were. Industrial Working Class: worked 12 to 16 hours a day, six days a week, no minimum wage or job security; dangers conditions; women paid less than men; many children employed.
Early Socialism Socialism: a system in which society owns and controls some means of production, such as factories and utilities. Believed in equality of all people and wanted to replace competition with cooperation Robert Owen, utopian socialist, believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment.