2Video and QuestionsHow did the use of cast iron drive the first industrial revolution?What powered the second industrial revolution?What problems did workers in heavy industry have to face?Give an example of how technological revolutions can lead to social change.What was the Crystal Palace?
3Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Began in 1780sContributing FactorsChange in agricultural practices (more food)Population grewCapital (ready supply of money)/entrepreneursNatural resources were plentifulSupply of markets for goods
4Changes in Cotton Production 18th century: cottage industry – cotton thread from raw cotton; thread turned into cloth on looms all done in private homesFlying shuttle: made weaving fasterSpinning jenny: made thread fasterWater-powered loomMore efficient machines made the need for factoriesJames Watt improved the steam engine (coal)
5Coal and Iron Industries More coal needed for the steam enginePuddling: a new process for producing iron from iron oreCoke, derived from coal, is used to burn away impurities in crude ironHigh-quality iron used for new machines and new means of transportation
6Railroads Needed for moving resources and goods. Created new jobs Less expensive transportation for lower-priced goods
7New Factories Created a new labor system Workers worked in shifts to keep machines constantly producing
8Spread of Industrialization Europe: first countries to industrialize were Belgium, France and the German statesNorth America:Large populationTransportation systemRobert Fulton: 1st paddle-wheel steamboatWomen and girls worked in textile factoriesFamilies were employed to work in factories
9Social Impact in Europe Cities and towns grew dramaticallyMore food = larger populationsPoor living conditions due to overpopulationIndustrial Middle Class: made up of people who built factories, bought machines, and figured out where markets were.Industrial Working Class: worked 12 to 16 hours a day, six days a week, no minimum wage or job security; dangers conditions; women paid less than men; many children employed.
10Early SocialismSocialism: a system in which society owns and controls some means of production, such as factories and utilities.Believed in equality of all people and wanted to replace competition with cooperationRobert Owen, utopian socialist, believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment.