Presentation on theme: "Fungi Chytridiomycota- Chytrids Zygomycota- Molds"— Presentation transcript:
1Fungi Chytridiomycota- Chytrids Zygomycota- Molds Glomeromycota- Arbuscular MycorrhizaeAlma Khan and Shannon Hayes
2Basic Structure of Fungi Most species of fungi are multicellularMost common body structures are multicellular filaments and single cells (yeasts)Multicellular fungi are made up of hyphaeHyphae may contain septa (divide hyphae into different cells, but contain pores)Cells walls composed of chitin (some also include polysaccharides)Fungi are composed of Eukaryotic cells.Some fungi can maintain 2 different nuclei per cell, and some don’t have mitochondria.
3Structure Chytridiomycota: Cells walls made mostly of chitin (but some are made of polysaccharide)Only type of fungi to have flagellaRibosomes are around a nuclei (not enclosed in a nuclear cap)Smallest and simplest fungi.Lack SeptaZygomycota:Cell walls composed mostly of chitin (sometimes polysaccharide)Have a continuous mycelium containing hundreds or thousands of nuclei.Lack SeptaGlomeromycota:Lack SeptaSome form arbuscular mycorrhizae
4Diversity Chytridiomycota: Sexual and asexual reproduction Motile with Flagellated sporesZygomycota:Sexual spores are thick, therefore resisting zygosporesLong multinucleate haploid hyphaeGlomeromycota:Form arbuscular mycorrhizae with plants
5Basics of Nutrition Heterotrophs Gain food by secreting powerful hydrolytic enzymes into their surroundings which brake down complex molecules into smaller organic compounds that the fungi can absorb and store.Can act as decomposers, parasites or have a mutualistic relationship.
6Mode of Nutrition Chyridiomycota: They derive nutrients from decaying in water and damp organic enriched habitats.Zygomycota:Derives nutrients from the organic material it molds on.Glomeromycota:Get nutrients from their mutualistic relationship with the plant they’ve pushed their hyphae into.
7Basics of Reproduction Fungi reproduce by producing spores, either sexually or asexually.Fungal nuclei are normally haploid, except for when they’re diploid during sexual reproduction.Sexual reproduction requires the fusion of hyphae from different mating types (communicated through pheromones)Process of asexual reproduction varies widely among fungi (some grow filamentous fungi that produces haploid spores by mitosis while in others, theirs is ordinary cell division or by the pinching of small “bud cells” of a parent cell.
10Ecological Significance Chytridiomycota:Causing a global decline in amphibian species that inhabit freshwater ecosystems by causing fatal fungal infections.Beneficial forms include the fungi found in the intestines of cattle that help them process the plant matter they eat.Zygomycota:Live close to plants, usually in soil or decaying matter.Contribute to the carbon cycle by decomposing soil, plant matter, and waste.Cause serious infections in humans (specifically harmful for diabetics and those with weakened immune systems), such as Zygomycosis.Glomeromycota:Form a mutualistic relationship with almost 90% of all plant species through Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (supplies minerals and other nutrients to the roots of the plant, and “food” the fungus.)
11Uniqueness Chytridiomycota: Smallest and simplest fungi. First found in northern Russia.Believed to be the earliest fungal group to diverge from other fungi.Only fungal group to have flagellum present.Spores called zoosporesZygomycota:Make up about 1% of fungi.Most primitive terrestrial fungi.Named for their sexually produced zygosporangia.Some have structures that can withstand excessive droughts or extreme temperatures.Glomeromycetes:Once considered ZygomycetesForm arbuscular mycorrhizae
12Examples Chytridiomycota: Orpinomyces joyonii- found in the intestines of cattle.Allomyces anomalus- can withstand extreme temperatures.Synchytrium endobioticum- a species that causes the “potato wart”.
13Examples Zygomycota: Molds that are on strawberries and other fruits Black Bread Mold
14ExamplesGlomeromycota:Mycorrhizae formed by Glomeromycota are found in the majority of plants found on land.Not as diverse as other types of fungi.
15Reproductive Structures NameMotile (move with flagella/undulipodia)HabitatCell OrganizationReproductive Structures# of Species KnownSepta Between Cells?ChytridiomycotaYesMostly AquaticUnicellular or FilamentousMicroscopic Sporangium1,000NoZygomycotaMostly TerrestrialFilamentousZygosporesGlomeromycotaMostly Terrestrial (Plants)Spores that resemble Zygospores160
16References Bibliography Campbell, N. A., & Reece, J. B. (2008). Biology 8th Edition. New York: Benjamin-Cummings Pub Co.Chytridiomycota. (2010, August 7). Retrieved Febuary 21, 2012, from MicrobeWiki:Farabee, M. (2010, May 18). Biological Diversity: Fungi. Retrieved Febuary 21, 2012, from Biological Diversity 4:Slot, J. (2005, August 31). Mushrooms, Molds, and Much More: an introduction to fungal biology. Retrieved Febuary 21, 2012, from Teaching the Fungal Tree of Life:Zygomycota. (2010, August 7). Retrieved Febuary 21, 2012, from MicrobeWiki: