Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Fungi This chapter describes the morphology, life cycles, and ecological importance of the kingdom Fungi. The divisions of fungi are established."— Presentation transcript:
1Kingdom FungiThis chapter describes the morphology, life cycles, and ecological importance of the kingdom Fungi. The divisions of fungi are established on the basis of variations in sexual reproduction. Lichens are symbiotic complexes of fungi and algae. Fungi play an important ecological role, both as decomposers and by their mychorrizal associations with plant roots. A flagellated protistan may have been the common ancestor to fungi and animals.
2Introduction to the Fungi Most fungi are multicellular eukaryotes.They differ from other eukaryotes in their nutrition, structure, growth, and reproduction.
3Introduction to the Fungi Fungi are heterotrophsThey obtain nutrition through absorption, in which they take up small molecules from their surroundings.Fungi secrete hydrolytic enzymes and digest food outside their bodies.
4Introduction to the Fungi The bodies of fungi are composed of filaments called hyphae that are intertwined together to form a mycelium (the body).Most fungi are multicellular and the hyphae are made up of cells with walls between them called septa.The cell walls are made of chitin.
8Diversity of Fungi There are four phyla of fungi: Chytridiomycota ZygomycotaAscomycotaBasidomycota
9Diversity of Fungi Division Chytridiomycota (chytrids) Aquatic saprobes or parasitesThought to be the most primitive of fungi
10Diversity of Fungi Division Zygomycota (zygote fungi) Terrestrial Some form mycorrhizae – mutualistic assocations with plant roots (Producing enzymes that encourage root growth)Common specimen is bread mold (Rhizopus)
11Diversity of Fungi Ascomycota (sac fungi) Live in a variety of environmentsCommon forms include unicellular yeasts, cup fungi, morels, and lichens
12Diversity of Fungi Basidiomycota (club fungus) Include mushrooms Important decomposers of plant material
13Diversity of Fungi Three other important fungi include: Molds Yeasts Lichens
14Diversity of Fungi Molds Rapidly growing fungi that reproduce asexuallySaprobes or parasitesCommon form is penicillin, other forms are also used as antibiotics
15Diversity of Fungi Yeasts Unicellular fungi that live in moist habitatsProduce asexually by buddingSaccharomyces cerevisiae used in baking, brewing, and molecular genetic research
16Diversity of Fungi Lichens LichensSymbiotic associations of photosynthetic microorganisms (algae) embedded in a network of fungal hyphaeHardy organisms that are pioneers on rock and soil surfaces
17Ecological Impacts of Fungi Fungi are important decomposers that release organic nutrients, enabling them to cycle through the environmentPathogenic fungi cause athlete’s foot, yeast infections, and lung infectionsSome fungi are edible, such as commercially cultivated mushrooms as well as some wild mushrooms
18Phylogenetic Relationships of Fungi Flagellated stage found in the most ancient lineage of chytrids is indicative of a protist ancestorOther fungal divisions lost their flagellated stages as they developed reproduction and dispersal methods for life on landComparisons of proteins and ribosomal RNA indicate that animals and fungi diverged from a common ancestor