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1 Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping. 2 Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use The creation, shipping, and use of radioactive material.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping. 2 Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use The creation, shipping, and use of radioactive material."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping

2 2 Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use The creation, shipping, and use of radioactive material is highly regulated (IAEA, NRC, DOT, etc.). The creation, shipping, and use of radioactive material is highly regulated (IAEA, NRC, DOT, etc.). High activity sources can only be produced by sophisticated methods (e.g. reactors & accelerators). High activity sources can only be produced by sophisticated methods (e.g. reactors & accelerators). High activity sources can only be obtained after special licensing to ensure their safe use and their security. High activity sources can only be obtained after special licensing to ensure their safe use and their security. Similar regulations exist in other countries were radioactive material is produced or used. Similar regulations exist in other countries were radioactive material is produced or used.

3 3 Shielding Requirements Limit Portability For sources: the higher the activity, the more shielding you require to transport the source. For sources: the higher the activity, the more shielding you require to transport the source. Density sources: typically 1.5 Ci to 2 Ci. 120 Lbs Neutron sources: 4 to 19 Ci 130 to 200 Lbs Large Densometer: 55 mCi 68 to 275 Lbs

4 4 Portable Radiography Sources “ Top strength” industrial radiography sources can burn fingers and cause radiation sickness within a few minutes. “ Top strength” industrial radiography sources can burn fingers and cause radiation sickness within a few minutes. Effects drop off dramatically with distance. Outside of 3 meters, acute effects rare even after hours of exposure. Effects drop off dramatically with distance. Outside of 3 meters, acute effects rare even after hours of exposure. Sources are constructed to meet rigorous testing standards. A typical source is encapsulated in two (2) TIG welded Stainless Steel Capsules. Sources are constructed to meet rigorous testing standards. A typical source is encapsulated in two (2) TIG welded Stainless Steel Capsules. Source material itself is often metal (Cobalt or Iridium) or embedded on non-soluble ceramics or “microspheres” to prevent inhalation of radioactive material if the source encapsulation is breached. Source material itself is often metal (Cobalt or Iridium) or embedded on non-soluble ceramics or “microspheres” to prevent inhalation of radioactive material if the source encapsulation is breached.

5 5 High Activity Source Transportation Containers that ship high activity sources are meant to withstand very punishing accident conditions.

6 6 Conclusion: Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use High activity radioactive material is highly regulated. High activity radioactive material is highly regulated. Industrial sources are very robust and made not to leak. Industrial sources are very robust and made not to leak. When dangerous quantities are shipped, the material is put in a container capable of withstanding harsh accident conditions. When dangerous quantities are shipped, the material is put in a container capable of withstanding harsh accident conditions. Very high activity industrial/medical sources are facility based and difficult to remove. Very high activity industrial/medical sources are facility based and difficult to remove.

7 7 How Might High Activity Radioactive Material be Misused? Expose people to an external source of radiation. Expose people to an external source of radiation. Disperse radioactive material using conventional means. Disperse radioactive material using conventional means. Explosively Disperse radioactive material [a “Dirty Bomb”]. Explosively Disperse radioactive material [a “Dirty Bomb”]. Create a Nuclear Weapon (this requires special nuclear material) Create a Nuclear Weapon (this requires special nuclear material)

8 8 Potential consequences of dispersal of radioactive material into... Facility ventilation systems Inhalation (internal) dose hazard Inhalation (internal) dose hazard Interruption of ‘normal life’ Interruption of ‘normal life’ Expensive cleanup costs Expensive cleanup costs Water supplies High dilution High dilution Individually significant doses would not likely result. Individually significant doses would not likely result. The general environment (“dirty bombs”, crop dusters, fire, sprayer, etc..) Low likelihood of acute radiological effects May require population shelter or evacuation May be difficult to clean outdoor areas

9 9 WHAT IS A ‘DIRTY BOMB’? A “Dirty Bomb” is conventional explosives combined with radioactive material with the intention of spreading the radioactive material over a relatively large area. A “Dirty Bomb” is conventional explosives combined with radioactive material with the intention of spreading the radioactive material over a relatively large area. This is NOT a nuclear explosion, the radioactive material does not enhance the explosion. This is NOT a nuclear explosion, the radioactive material does not enhance the explosion. Very few deaths would be expected from acute radiological exposure (the greatest hazard would likely be from the effects of the conventional explosives). Very few deaths would be expected from acute radiological exposure (the greatest hazard would likely be from the effects of the conventional explosives). The contamination will hamper emergency response efforts and can delay hospital treatment. The contamination will hamper emergency response efforts and can delay hospital treatment. Widespread contamination can deny the use of facilities and areas and have a significant psychological impact on the exposed population. Widespread contamination can deny the use of facilities and areas and have a significant psychological impact on the exposed population.

10 10 External Exposures Focused radiation or localized contamination can result in radiation effect to specific areas on the body Focused radiation or localized contamination can result in radiation effect to specific areas on the body Whole body exposure can result from: Whole body exposure can result from: A passing radioactive cloud or smoke A passing radioactive cloud or smoke A large, distant point source A large, distant point source Exposure from contamination deposited on the ground Exposure from contamination deposited on the ground

11 11 Internal Exposures Once radioactive material is deposited in the body, it can expose the person from within. Once radioactive material is deposited in the body, it can expose the person from within. The magnitude of the dose will depend on many factors: The magnitude of the dose will depend on many factors: How much material was deposited, How much material was deposited, how it got into the body (ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or injection), how it got into the body (ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or injection), chemical form of the radioactive material, chemical form of the radioactive material, the radiation it produces, the radiation it produces, how quickly it decays, and how quickly it decays, and how quickly the body eliminates the material. how quickly the body eliminates the material.

12 12 The Human Factor Concerns about radiation and contamination often produce an exaggerated emotional response. Concerns about radiation and contamination often produce an exaggerated emotional response. Can’t detect it with our 5 senses Can’t detect it with our 5 senses Associated with cancer Associated with cancer Reminiscent of “cold war” fears Reminiscent of “cold war” fears Science difficult to understand Science difficult to understand Out of our control Out of our control Possible results may be… Possible results may be… Unexposed people saturating the medical community Unexposed people saturating the medical community Health and economic effects from long term anxiety or depression in the community Health and economic effects from long term anxiety or depression in the community

13 13 Conclusion: Misuse of Radioactive Material High activity sources can cause health effects, but only to those in close proximity. High activity sources can cause health effects, but only to those in close proximity. Acute health effects from distributed radioactive material unlikely without prolonged, high- concentration exposure. Acute health effects from distributed radioactive material unlikely without prolonged, high- concentration exposure. Radiation or contamination will hinder response efforts. Radiation or contamination will hinder response efforts. Denial of facilities and areas will have a major cost effect Denial of facilities and areas will have a major cost effect Public anxiety and its effects may be the primary lasting health effect. Public anxiety and its effects may be the primary lasting health effect.

14 14 Radioactive Material Dangerous Goods Transportation Training Objectives: Properly classify a package containing radioactive material Properly classify a package containing radioactive material Properly label and mark a radioactive materials package for shipment Properly label and mark a radioactive materials package for shipment Properly prepare shipping documentation Properly prepare shipping documentation Demonstrate your ability to complete a radioactive materials shipment Demonstrate your ability to complete a radioactive materials shipment

15 15 Definitions A 1 and A 2 values A 1 and A 2 values Cargo Aircraft Cargo Aircraft Competent Authority Competent Authority Consignee Consignee Excepted Package Excepted Package Radioactive Material Radioactive Material Special Form Special Form

16 16 Radionuclide Activity Concentration for Exempt Material Bq/gm Activity Limit for an Exempt Consignment Bq/gm Am X X 10 4 Co-57 1 X X 10 6 Co-60 1 X X 10 5 Cs X X 10 4 Gd X X 10 7 I X X 10 6 Ir X X 10 4 K-40 1 X X 10 6 Ra X X 10 4 T(Tritium) H-3 1 X X 10 9 Th-natural 1 X X 10 3 U-Natural 1 X X 10 3 Radioactive Material

17 17 Package Activity Limits Excepted Packages Excepted Packages 1. Materials (Limited Quantity) 2. Instruments and Articles - Item Limits 3. Instruments and Articles - Package Limits  Instrument and manufactured articles – clock, electronic tube, or apparatus having radioactive material as a component part

18 18 Activity Limits for Excepted Packages Nature of contents Instruments and Articles Materials Item Limits Package Limits (RAM-Limited Quantity) Solids Special Form Special Form A 1 A1A1A1A A 1 Other Forms Other Forms A 2 A2A2A2A A 2 Liquids A A 2 Gases Tritium H-3 Tritium H-3 2 X A 2 2 X10 -1 A 2 2 X A 2 Special Form Special Form A A A 1 Other Forms Other Forms A A A 2

19 19 Radionuclide A 1 Values A 2 Values RQ Values Am TBq (50 Ci) TBq (0.005 Ci) TBq (0.01Ci) Co-57 8 TBq (200 Ci) 3.7 TBq (100 Ci) Co TBq (10 Ci) 0.37 TBq (10 Ci) Cs TBq (50 Ci) 0.5 TBq (10 Ci) TBq (1 Ci) Gd TBq (200 Ci) 5 TBq (100 Ci) 0.37 TBq (10 Ci) I TBq (80 Ci) 0.5 TBq (10 Ci) TBq (0.01 Ci) Ir TBq (20 Ci) 0.5 TBq (10 Ci) 0.37 TBq (10 Ci) K TBq (10 Ci) TBq (1 Ci) Ra TBq (8 Ci) 0.02 TBq (0.5 Ci) TBq (0.1 Ci) T(Tritium) H-3 40 TBq (1000 Ci) 3.7 TBq (100 Ci) Th-naturalunlimitedunlimited TBq (0.011 Ci) U – Natural unlimitedunlimited TBq (0.052 Ci) RQ is the reportable quantity. US requirement.

20 20 Requirements for Packages General Requirements General Requirements Easily and safely handled and transported Easily and safely handled and transported Strong lifting attachments Strong lifting attachments Free from protruding features Free from protruding features Surface will not retain water Surface will not retain water Withstand effects of acceleration and vibration Withstand effects of acceleration and vibration Physically and chemically compatible components Physically and chemically compatible components Temperature range from -40 o C to + 55 o C Temperature range from -40 o C to + 55 o C

21 21 Type A Package Meet General Package requirements Meet General Package requirements Smallest outside dimension >100 mm Smallest outside dimension >100 mm Capability of installing a tamper proof seal Capability of installing a tamper proof seal Forces on tie-down attachment must not damage package during transport Forces on tie-down attachment must not damage package during transport Temperature range -40 o C to + 70 o C Temperature range -40 o C to + 70 o C No loss or dispersal of material or a 20% increase in radiation level after water spray, free drop, stacking, and penetration tests. No loss or dispersal of material or a 20% increase in radiation level after water spray, free drop, stacking, and penetration tests.

22 22 Empty Packages Previously contained radioactive material Previously contained radioactive material Well maintained and securely closed Well maintained and securely closed No loose contamination No loose contamination Any labels which may have been displayed are no longer visible Any labels which may have been displayed are no longer visible

23 23 Category Maximum radiation level at any point on External surface Transport Index I-WHITE Not more than 0.005mSv/hr (0.5 mrem/hr) 0 (< 0.05) II-YELLOW More than mSv/hr (0.5mrem/hr) but Not more than 0.5 mSv/hr(50 mrem/hr) 0 to < 1 III-YELLOW More than 0.5 mSv/hr(50 mrem/hr) but Not more than 2 mSv/hr(200 mrem/hr) 1 to < 10 III-YELLOW and also Under exclusive use More than 2 mSv/hr(200 mrem/hr) but not more than 10 mSv/hr(1,000 mrem/hr) More than 10

24 24 Shipping Labels Transport Index < 0.05 Transport Index < 0.05 Surface < 0.5 mr/hr Surface < 0.5 mr/hr

25 25 Shipping Labels Transport Index <1.0 Transport Index <1.0 Surface <50 mr/hr Surface <50 mr/hr

26 26 Shipping Labels Transport Index <10 Transport Index <10 Surface <200 mr/hr Surface <200 mr/hr

27 27 TRANSPORT INDEX TRANSPORT INDEX: The radiation level in mr/hr at one meter from the package surface (gamma and neutron). The radiation level in mr/hr at one meter from the package surface (gamma and neutron). TRANSPORT INDEX ONE METER 3.3 FEET 39 INCHES

28 28 Maximum Transport Index For Total Number of Packages On One Vehicle Am241Be 18.5 Ci and.5 Ci. Cs Ci. THE SUM OF THE TRANSPORTATION INDEXES CANNOT EXCEED 50 FOR A SINGLE SHIPMENT

29 29 Overpack An enclosure that is used by a single consignor to provide protection or convenience in handling of a package or to consolidate two or more packages. An enclosure that is used by a single consignor to provide protection or convenience in handling of a package or to consolidate two or more packages. Packages of radioactive material may be combined in an overpack for transport. Packages of radioactive material may be combined in an overpack for transport. Only the shipper is permitted to take a direct measurement of the radiation level to determine the TI. Only the shipper is permitted to take a direct measurement of the radiation level to determine the TI.

30 30 Special Form Indispersible solid or sealed capsule which meets the following: Indispersible solid or sealed capsule which meets the following: Capsule can only be opened by destroying it Capsule can only be opened by destroying it Have one dimension not less than 5 mm Have one dimension not less than 5 mm Design received unilateral approval Design received unilateral approval Demonstration of compliance with the standards can be done by performance, reference to previous tests, or calculations Demonstration of compliance with the standards can be done by performance, reference to previous tests, or calculations

31 31 Special Form Subjected to impact test, percussion test, leaching test, volumetric leakage test, bending test, and heat test Subjected to impact test, percussion test, leaching test, volumetric leakage test, bending test, and heat test Would not break or shatter under the impact, percussion or bending tests Would not break or shatter under the impact, percussion or bending tests Would not melt or disperse in the heat test Would not melt or disperse in the heat test Would not leak Would not leak

32 32 Package Markings Readily visible and legible Readily visible and legible “Type A” must be stamped or printed as required “Type A” must be stamped or printed as required Proper shipping name Proper shipping name UN Number UN Number Excepted packages only require UN Number Excepted packages only require UN Number Shipper and Consignee with addresses Shipper and Consignee with addresses Gross mass if exceeding 50 kg Gross mass if exceeding 50 kg

33 33 Marking of Overpacks Proper shipping name Proper shipping name UN number UN number All labels except for the “Type A” package label that are required on the inner package must be reproduced on the outside of the overpack All labels except for the “Type A” package label that are required on the inner package must be reproduced on the outside of the overpack

34 34 Package Markings Markings required by other international regulations are permitted Markings required by other international regulations are permitted In addition to the languages of the State of Origin, English should be used. In addition to the languages of the State of Origin, English should be used. Reportable Quantity (RQ) marked on package for shipments entering or leaving the US Reportable Quantity (RQ) marked on package for shipments entering or leaving the US

35 35 Additional Package Markings IMDG Requires a shippers mark be placed on the package or overpack – initials of the company (ex: HES) at least 2 inches in height Requires a shippers mark be placed on the package or overpack – initials of the company (ex: HES) at least 2 inches in height Tracking number (ex: the RMA number) or other locally generated serial number Tracking number (ex: the RMA number) or other locally generated serial number City of destination City of destination Number of packages (ex: 1 of 1, 1 of 2) Number of packages (ex: 1 of 1, 1 of 2)

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41 41 Package Labeling Identification of primary hazard Identification of primary hazard Able to withstand open weather exposure Able to withstand open weather exposure Two labels which conform to the appropriate category on two opposite sides of the package or on the outside of all four sides of the freight container Two labels which conform to the appropriate category on two opposite sides of the package or on the outside of all four sides of the freight container Labels must not be folded Labels must not be folded Labels must not overlap Labels must not overlap

42 42 Package Labeling Cargo Aircraft Only label for goods transported into or out of US Cargo Aircraft Only label for goods transported into or out of US Category Labels must have Category Labels must have Contents – symbol of radionuclide – mixtures as space permits Contents – symbol of radionuclide – mixtures as space permits Activity in Bq can have Ci in parentheses Activity in Bq can have Ci in parentheses Transport Index for category II and III Transport Index for category II and III

43 43 Placarding Four placards front, back and both sides Four placards front, back and both sides Required for Category III in US Required for Category III in US May be required for all Category labels outside US – check local rules May be required for all Category labels outside US – check local rules Enlarged category labels may be used in place of placards Enlarged category labels may be used in place of placards

44 44

45 45 Shippers Declaration for Dangerous Goods - SDDG Two copies completed and signed Two copies completed and signed Proper shipping name Proper shipping name Class - Radioactive Material class 7 Class - Radioactive Material class 7 UN number UN number Number of Packages Number of Packages Subsidiary risk Subsidiary risk Indication of Passenger or Cargo-Only Indication of Passenger or Cargo-Only Indication of Radioactive or Non-Radioactive Indication of Radioactive or Non-Radioactive Special handling information Special handling information Indication if an overpack has been used Indication if an overpack has been used Full name and address of shipper and consignee Full name and address of shipper and consignee Airport or City of departure and destination Airport or City of departure and destination

46 46 SDDG The words Radioactive Material if not contained in the shipping name The words Radioactive Material if not contained in the shipping name Name or symbol of Radionuclide(s) Name or symbol of Radionuclide(s) Activity in Bq, may have Ci in parentheses Activity in Bq, may have Ci in parentheses Description of physical and chemical or a notation that it is Special Form Description of physical and chemical or a notation that it is Special Form Competent Authority Certificate mark Competent Authority Certificate mark Category Label I, II, or III Category Label I, II, or III For II and III Transport Index and package dimensions For II and III Transport Index and package dimensions Emergency contact information Emergency contact information SIGNATURE certifying shipment SIGNATURE certifying shipment

47 47 Air Waybill Must contain a statement to indicate that dangerous goods are described on accompanying DGD Must contain a statement to indicate that dangerous goods are described on accompanying DGD When applicable, indicate Cargo Aircraft Only or CAO When applicable, indicate Cargo Aircraft Only or CAO For Excepted Packages – in the Nature and Quantity of Goods box list proper shipping name with UN number For Excepted Packages – in the Nature and Quantity of Goods box list proper shipping name with UN number

48 48 Additional Documentation Competent Authority Certificates Competent Authority Certificates Sealed Source Certificates Sealed Source Certificates Current Leak Test Certificates Current Leak Test Certificates Emergency Response Guide Emergency Response Guide Locally required transportation documents Locally required transportation documents

49 49 Proper Shipping Names Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Limited Quantity of Material, UN2910 Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Limited Quantity of Material, UN2910 ‘Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Instruments’ or ‘Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Articles’, both UN2911 ‘Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Instruments’ or ‘Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Articles’, both UN2911 Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Articles Manufactured From ‘Natural Uranium’, ‘Depleted Uranium’, or ‘Natural Thorium’ all UN2909 Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Articles Manufactured From ‘Natural Uranium’, ‘Depleted Uranium’, or ‘Natural Thorium’ all UN2909 Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Empty Packaging, UN2908 Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Empty Packaging, UN2908

50 50 Proper Shipping Names Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Non-Special Form, Non Fissile, UN2915 Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Non-Special Form, Non Fissile, UN2915 Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN3332 Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN3332 “RQ” indicated on the declaration when required “RQ” indicated on the declaration when required RQ, Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN3332 RQ, Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN3332

51 51 Unit Conversions for your reference Unit Conversions for your reference IATA/ICAO Radioactive Checklist IATA/ICAO Radioactive Checklist Latest revision contained in back of IATA manual Latest revision contained in back of IATA manual Contained on Radiation Safety Transportation web page Contained on Radiation Safety Transportation web page Recommend completing for each shipment since the air carrier will be using one also to check you. Recommend completing for each shipment since the air carrier will be using one also to check you.

52 52

53 53 Example 1 Isotope Co-57, Special Form Isotope Co-57, Special Form Competent Authority Cert USA/0356/S Competent Authority Cert USA/0356/S 111 MBq, 3 mCi 111 MBq, 3 mCi 1.3 kg, 3 lb 1.3 kg, 3 lb Package box, Type A, 10X8X4 inches Package box, Type A, 10X8X4 inches Surface dose rate = 0.4 mR/hr Surface dose rate = 0.4 mR/hr Dose rate at 1 meter = 40 uR/hr Dose rate at 1 meter = 40 uR/hr Shipped from US to Aberdeen Shipped from US to Aberdeen Source Serial Number 740-DD Source Serial Number 740-DD

54 54 Radioactive Material,Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile or Fissile Excepted 7 UN 3332 Co-57, 111 MBq (3 mCi),one Type A Package I White USA/0356/S 740-DD Security Seal 33456

55 55 Co MBq (3 mCi)

56 56 To: HES Aberdeen From: HES USA 2 of each label on opposite sides

57 57 Example 2 Isotope Cs-137, Special Form, USA/0508/S Isotope Cs-137, Special Form, USA/0508/S 12 mCi, 444 MBq 12 mCi, 444 MBq Source DB-032, Densometer V3C-120 Source DB-032, Densometer V3C-120 Type A Package placed in an Overpack Type A Package placed in an Overpack Overpack 30X30X90 cm Overpack 30X30X90 cm Weight 68 lbs, 30.8 kg Weight 68 lbs, 30.8 kg Radiation levels on contact = 18 mR/hr at 1 meter = 0.5 mR/hr Radiation levels on contact = 18 mR/hr at 1 meter = 0.5 mR/hr Ship from USA to France Ship from USA to France

58 58 Radioactive Material,Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile 7 UN 3332 Cs-137, 444 MBq (12 mCi),one Type A Package II Yellow TI=0.5 DIM 30X30 X90 cm USA/0508/S DB-032, Densometer V3C-120 Security Seal Overpack Used

59 59 Cs M12 m 0.5

60 60 Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN 3332 To: France From: Duncan USA 2 of each label on opposite sides Inner Packages Comply With Prescribed Specifications Emergency Contact Information

61 61 Example 3 Isotope Am241Be, GBq, 18.5 Ci Isotope Am241Be, GBq, 18.5 Ci Special Form, GB/223/S-85 Special Form, GB/223/S-85 Type A Package, 120X120X120 cm Type A Package, 120X120X120 cm 91kg, 200 lbs 91kg, 200 lbs Radiation levels on contact = 60 mR/hr neutron and 27 mR/hr gamma. At 1 meter = 7 mR/hr neutron and 1 mR/hr gamma Radiation levels on contact = 60 mR/hr neutron and 27 mR/hr gamma. At 1 meter = 7 mR/hr neutron and 1 mR/hr gamma Shipping from Nigeria to Mexico Shipping from Nigeria to Mexico Source Serial Number SW-2240 Source Serial Number SW-2240

62 62 Radioactive Material,Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile or Fissile Excepted 7 UN 3332 Am241Be, GBq (18.5 Ci),one Type A Package III Yellow TI=8 DIM 120X120 X120 cm GB/223/S-85 SW-2240 Security Seal 33456

63 63 Am241Be GBq (18.5 Ci) 8

64 64 To: Mexico From: Nigeria Weight: 91 kg (200 lb) 2 of each label on opposite sides

65 65

66 66 Exercises then Knowledge Inventory Review Exercises then Knowledge Inventory Review TEST TEST


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