Presentation on theme: "Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping"— Presentation transcript:
1 Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible MisuseMulti-Modal Radioactive Shipping
2 Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible MisuseRadioactive Material Production, Transportation, and UseThe creation, shipping, and use of radioactive material is highly regulated (IAEA, NRC, DOT, etc.).High activity sources can only be produced by sophisticated methods (e.g. reactors & accelerators).High activity sources can only be obtained after special licensing to ensure their safe use and their security.Similar regulations exist in other countries were radioactive material is produced or used.
3 Shielding Requirements Limit Portability Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible MisuseShielding Requirements Limit PortabilityFor sources: the higher the activity, the more shielding you require to transport the source.Density sources:typically 1.5 Ci to 2 Ci.120 LbsNeutron sources:4 to 19 Ci130 to 200 LbsLarge Densometer:55 mCi68 to 275 Lbs
4 Portable Radiography Sources Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible MisusePortable Radiography Sources“Top strength” industrial radiography sources can burn fingers and cause radiation sickness within a few minutes.Effects drop off dramatically with distance. Outside of 3 meters, acute effects rare even after hours of exposure.Sources are constructed to meet rigorous testing standards. A typical source is encapsulated in two (2) TIG welded Stainless Steel Capsules.Source material itself is often metal (Cobalt or Iridium) or embedded on non-soluble ceramics or “microspheres” to prevent inhalation of radioactive material if the source encapsulation is breached.
5 High Activity Source Transportation Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible MisuseHigh Activity Source TransportationContainers that ship high activity sources are meant to withstand very punishing accident conditions.
6 Conclusion: Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible MisuseConclusion: Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and UseHigh activity radioactive material is highly regulated.Industrial sources are very robust and made not to leak.When dangerous quantities are shipped, the material is put in a container capable of withstanding harsh accident conditions.Very high activity industrial/medical sources are facility based and difficult to remove.
7 How Might High Activity Radioactive Material be Misused? Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible MisuseHow Might High Activity Radioactive Material be Misused?Expose people to an external source of radiation.Disperse radioactive material using conventional means.Explosively Disperse radioactive material [a “Dirty Bomb”].Create a Nuclear Weapon (this requires special nuclear material)
8 Potential consequences of dispersal of radioactive material into... Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible MisusePotential consequences of dispersal of radioactive material into...Facility ventilation systemsInhalation (internal) dose hazardInterruption of ‘normal life’Expensive cleanup costsWater suppliesHigh dilutionIndividually significant doses would not likely result.The general environment (“dirty bombs”, crop dusters, fire, sprayer, etc..)Low likelihood of acute radiological effectsMay require population shelter or evacuationMay be difficult to clean outdoor areas
9 Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible Misuse WHAT IS A ‘DIRTY BOMB’?A “Dirty Bomb” is conventional explosives combined with radioactive material with the intention of spreading the radioactive material over a relatively large area.This is NOT a nuclear explosion, the radioactive material does not enhance the explosion.Very few deaths would be expected from acute radiological exposure (the greatest hazard would likely be from the effects of the conventional explosives).The contamination will hamper emergency response efforts and can delay hospital treatment.Widespread contamination can deny the use of facilities and areas and have a significant psychological impact on the exposed population.
10 Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible Misuse External ExposuresFocused radiation or localized contamination can result in radiation effect to specific areas on the bodyWhole body exposure can result from:A passing radioactive cloud or smokeA large, distant point sourceExposure from contamination deposited on the ground
11 Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible Misuse Internal ExposuresOnce radioactive material is deposited in the body, it can expose the person from within.The magnitude of the dose will depend on many factors:How much material was deposited,how it got into the body (ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or injection),chemical form of the radioactive material,the radiation it produces,how quickly it decays, andhow quickly the body eliminates the material.
12 Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible Misuse The Human FactorConcerns about radiation and contamination often produce an exaggerated emotional response.Can’t detect it with our 5 sensesAssociated with cancerReminiscent of “cold war” fearsScience difficult to understandOut of our controlPossible results may be…Unexposed people saturating the medical communityHealth and economic effects from long term anxiety or depression in the community
13 Conclusion: Misuse of Radioactive Material Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, Use, and Possible MisuseConclusion: Misuse of Radioactive MaterialHigh activity sources can cause health effects, but only to those in close proximity.Acute health effects from distributed radioactive material unlikely without prolonged, high-concentration exposure.Radiation or contamination will hinder response efforts.Denial of facilities and areas will have a major cost effectPublic anxiety and its effects may be the primary lasting health effect.
14 Radioactive Material Dangerous Goods Transportation TrainingObjectives:Properly classify a package containing radioactive materialProperly label and mark a radioactive materials package for shipmentProperly prepare shipping documentationDemonstrate your ability to complete a radioactive materials shipment
15 Definitions A1 and A2 values Cargo Aircraft Competent Authority ConsigneeExcepted PackageRadioactive MaterialSpecial Form
16 Radioactive Material Radionuclide Activity Concentration for Exempt Material Bq/gmActivity Limit for an Exempt Consignment Bq/gmAm-2411 X 1001 X 104Co-571 X 1021 X 106Co-601 X 1011 X 105Cs-137Gd-1531 X 107I-131Ir-192K-40Ra-226T(Tritium) H-31 X 109Th-natural1 X 103U-Natural
17 Package Activity Limits Excepted PackagesMaterials (Limited Quantity)Instruments and Articles - Item LimitsInstruments and Articles - Package LimitsInstrument and manufactured articles – clock, electronic tube, or apparatus having radioactive material as a component part
18 Instruments and Articles (RAM-Limited Quantity) Activity Limits for Excepted PackagesNature of contentsInstruments and ArticlesMaterialsItem LimitsPackage Limits(RAM-Limited Quantity)SolidsSpecial Form10-2A1A110-3A1Other Forms10-2A2A210-3A2Liquids10-1 A210-4A2GasesTritium H-32 X 10-2A22 X10-1 A210-2 A110-2 A2
20 Requirements for Packages General RequirementsEasily and safely handled and transportedStrong lifting attachmentsFree from protruding featuresSurface will not retain waterWithstand effects of acceleration and vibrationPhysically and chemically compatible componentsTemperature range from -40o C to + 55oC
21 Type A Package Meet General Package requirements Smallest outside dimension >100 mmCapability of installing a tamper proof sealForces on tie-down attachment must not damage package during transportTemperature range -40oC to + 70oCNo loss or dispersal of material or a 20% increase in radiation level after water spray, free drop, stacking, and penetration tests.
22 Empty Packages Previously contained radioactive material Well maintained and securely closedNo loose contaminationAny labels which may have been displayed are no longer visible
23 Maximum radiation level at any point on External surface CategoryMaximum radiation level at any point on External surfaceTransport IndexI-WHITENot more than 0.005mSv/hr (0.5 mrem/hr)0 (< 0.05)II-YELLOWMore than mSv/hr (0.5mrem/hr) but Not more than 0.5 mSv/hr(50 mrem/hr)0 to < 1III-YELLOWMore than 0.5 mSv/hr(50 mrem/hr) but Not more than 2 mSv/hr(200 mrem/hr)1 to < 10III-YELLOW and also Under exclusive useMore than 2 mSv/hr(200 mrem/hr) but not more than 10 mSv/hr(1,000 mrem/hr)More than 10
24 Shipping LabelsTransport Index < 0.05Surface < 0.5 mr/hr
25 Shipping LabelsTransport Index <1.0Surface <50 mr/hr
26 Shipping LabelsTransport Index <10Surface <200 mr/hr
27 TRANSPORT INDEX TRANSPORT INDEX: ONE METER3.3 FEET39 INCHESTRANSPORT INDEX:The radiation level in mr/hr at one meter from the package surface (gamma and neutron).
28 Maximum Transport Index For Total Number of Packages On One Vehicle Am241Be18.5 Ci and.5 Ci.Cs1371.5 Ci.THE SUM OF THE TRANSPORTATIONINDEXES CANNOT EXCEED50 FORA SINGLE SHIPMENT
29 OverpackAn enclosure that is used by a single consignor to provide protection or convenience in handling of a package or to consolidate two or more packages.Packages of radioactive material may be combined in an overpack for transport.Only the shipper is permitted to take a direct measurement of the radiation level to determine the TI.
30 Special FormIndispersible solid or sealed capsule which meets the following:Capsule can only be opened by destroying itHave one dimension not less than 5 mmDesign received unilateral approvalDemonstration of compliance with the standards can be done by performance, reference to previous tests, or calculations
31 Special FormSubjected to impact test, percussion test, leaching test, volumetric leakage test, bending test, and heat testWould not break or shatter under the impact, percussion or bending testsWould not melt or disperse in the heat testWould not leak
32 Package Markings Readily visible and legible “Type A” must be stamped or printed as requiredProper shipping nameUN NumberExcepted packages only require UN NumberShipper and Consignee with addressesGross mass if exceeding 50 kg
33 Marking of Overpacks Proper shipping name UN number All labels except for the “Type A” package label that are required on the inner package must be reproduced on the outside of the overpack
34 Package MarkingsMarkings required by other international regulations are permittedIn addition to the languages of the State of Origin, English should be used.Reportable Quantity (RQ) marked on package for shipments entering or leaving the US
35 Additional Package Markings IMDG Requires a shippers mark be placed on the package or overpack – initials of the company (ex: HES) at least 2 inches in heightTracking number (ex: the RMA number) or other locally generated serial numberCity of destinationNumber of packages (ex: 1 of 1, 1 of 2)
41 Package Labeling Identification of primary hazard Able to withstand open weather exposureTwo labels which conform to the appropriate category on two opposite sides of the package or on the outside of all four sides of the freight containerLabels must not be foldedLabels must not overlap
42 Package LabelingCargo Aircraft Only label for goods transported into or out of USCategory Labels must haveContents – symbol of radionuclide – mixtures as space permitsActivity in Bq can have Ci in parenthesesTransport Index for category II and III
43 Placarding Four placards front, back and both sides Required for Category III in USMay be required for all Category labels outside US – check local rulesEnlarged category labels may be used in place of placards
45 Shippers Declaration for Dangerous Goods - SDDG Two copies completed and signedProper shipping nameClass - Radioactive Material class 7UN numberNumber of PackagesSubsidiary riskIndication of Passenger or Cargo-OnlyIndication of Radioactive or Non-RadioactiveSpecial handling informationIndication if an overpack has been usedFull name and address of shipper and consigneeAirport or City of departure and destination
46 SDDGThe words Radioactive Material if not contained in the shipping nameName or symbol of Radionuclide(s)Activity in Bq, may have Ci in parenthesesDescription of physical and chemical or a notation that it is Special FormCompetent Authority Certificate markCategory Label I, II, or IIIFor II and III Transport Index and package dimensionsEmergency contact informationSIGNATURE certifying shipment
47 Air WaybillMust contain a statement to indicate that dangerous goods are described on accompanying DGDWhen applicable, indicate Cargo Aircraft Only or CAOFor Excepted Packages – in the Nature and Quantity of Goods box list proper shipping name with UN number
49 Proper Shipping NamesRadioactive Material, Excepted Package, Limited Quantity of Material, UN2910‘Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Instruments’ or ‘Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Articles’, both UN2911Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Articles Manufactured From ‘Natural Uranium’, ‘Depleted Uranium’, or ‘Natural Thorium’ all UN2909Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Empty Packaging, UN2908
50 Proper Shipping NamesRadioactive Material, Type A Package, Non-Special Form, Non Fissile, UN2915Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN3332“RQ” indicated on the declaration when requiredRQ, Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN3332
51 Unit Conversions for your reference IATA/ICAO Radioactive Checklist Latest revision contained in back of IATA manualContained on Radiation Safety Transportation web pageRecommend completing for each shipment since the air carrier will be using one also to check you.
53 Example 1 Isotope Co-57, Special Form Competent Authority Cert USA/0356/S111 MBq, 3 mCi1.3 kg, 3 lbPackage box, Type A, 10X8X4 inchesSurface dose rate = 0.4 mR/hrDose rate at 1 meter = 40 uR/hrShipped from US to AberdeenSource Serial Number 740-DD
54 Co-57, 111 MBq (3 mCi),one Type A Package Radioactive Material,Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile or Fissile Excepted7UN3332Co-57, 111 MBq (3 mCi),one Type A PackageUSA/0356/SIWhite740-DDSecurity Seal 33456
56 2 of each label on opposite sides To: HES AberdeenFrom: HES USA
57 Example 2 Isotope Cs-137, Special Form, USA/0508/S 12 mCi, 444 MBq Source DB-032, Densometer V3C-120Type A Package placed in an OverpackOverpack 30X30X90 cmWeight 68 lbs, 30.8 kgRadiation levels on contact = 18 mR/hr at 1 meter = 0.5 mR/hrShip from USA to France
58 Radioactive Material,Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile 7 UN3332Cs-137, 444 MBq (12 mCi),one Type A PackageUSA/0508/SIIYellowTI=0.5DIM30X30X90 cmOverpack UsedDB-032, Densometer V3C-120Security Seal 33456
60 Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN 3332 2 of each label on opposite sidesTo: FranceFrom: Duncan USAInner Packages Comply With Prescribed SpecificationsEmergency Contact Information
61 Example 3 Isotope Am241Be, 684.5 GBq, 18.5 Ci Special Form, GB/223/S-85Type A Package, 120X120X120 cm91kg, 200 lbsRadiation levels on contact = 60 mR/hr neutron and 27 mR/hr gamma. At 1 meter = 7 mR/hr neutron and 1 mR/hr gammaShipping from Nigeria to MexicoSource Serial Number SW-2240
62 Am241Be, 684.5 GBq (18.5 Ci),one Type A Package Radioactive Material,Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile or Fissile Excepted7UN3332Am241Be, GBq (18.5 Ci),one Type A PackageGB/223/S-85IIIYellowTI=8DIM120X120X120 cmSW-2240Security Seal 33456