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IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Types of Exposure Devices Day 5 – Lecture 4.

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Presentation on theme: "IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Types of Exposure Devices Day 5 – Lecture 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Types of Exposure Devices Day 5 – Lecture 4

2 IAEA 2 To gain an overview of the types, designs and usage of the various types of industrial radiographic equipment including devices, sealed sources and ancillary equipment. Objective

3 IAEA 3 Gamma radiography devices, sources and ancillary equipment X-ray equipment Pipe crawler equipment Real time radiography systems Accelerators (linear accelerators and Betatrons) Neutron radiography equipment Contents

4 IAEA 4 Category I the source is not removed from the exposure device and a shutter or other mechanism is used to expose the source. Types of Operation Category II the source is projected outside the shielded source container (via a wind out cable, pneumatic device, etc) through a projection sheath to the exposure position. Category X special applications

5 IAEA 5 The source does not leave the device. Category I Devices It has a shutter mechanism. The source may be moved to the expose position by vacuum or air pressure.

6 IAEA 6 The source is projected out of the source container. Remote controls are used. The source is unshielded during the exposure (but should be collimated when practicable). Manual or automatic operation. Category II Devices

7 IAEA 7 Are used for special applications i.e. gamma crawlers in pipelines. Their design and test requirements are dependent on the specific device application. Category X Devices

8 IAEA 8 Gamma Radiography – Projector Type Equipment

9 IAEA 9 are shielded with depleted uranium or lead; contain the sealed radioactive sealed source in a holder; use ancillary equipment to control the source movement; exposes the radioactive source to produce the radiograph. Gamma Radiography - Principles of Use Gamma radiography source containers:

10 IAEA 10 can be carried by one person; < 50 kg; are the most common type used; typically contain 192 Ir in activities up to 3.7 TBq Portable Devices

11 IAEA 11 ISO 1 3999 for devices and some ancillary equipment ISO 2919 for sealed sources IAEA SSR-6 for transport of radioactive packages 1 International Standards Organization Gamma Radiography Equipment Standards

12 IAEA 12 usually on a cart or trolley for ease of movement; typically contain 60 Co Mobile Devices

13 IAEA 13 used in one location; are heavy; may use 8.5 - 37 TBq 60 Co Fixed Devices

14 IAEA 14 Radiation levels (for user safety, particularly with portable devices, and transport). General Design Requirements Lock (and source) security. Resistant to ingress of water, mud, sand (minimize the risk of failure of the source movement and lock mechanisms, minimize wear of the source guide tube, etc. Able to withstand extremes of temperature (to minimize risk of the source jamming).

15 IAEA 15 “General” Conditions The device is to be fully operational after each test shielding efficiency test; vertical shock test; horizontal shock test; endurance test. Tests for Source Containers “Accident” Conditions The device need not be operational after test 9m drop test; 1m puncture bar drop test.

16 IAEA 16 Shielding Efficiency Dose Rates (µSv/h) at the Device’s Maximum Rated Capacity Device Type at 1 mat surfaceat 5 cm Portable 20 AND EITHER 2000 OR 500 Mobile 5020001000 Fixed10020001000

17 IAEA 17 Sealed Source Construction Sealed capsule. ISO 2919 design and tests. Special form design and test. Leak test by user.

18 IAEA 18 Source Assemblies Source capsule crimped on wire. Wire can be teleflex, aircraft or shielded links. Connector styles. Endurance and tensile tests.

19 IAEA 19 Properties of Typical Sources IsotopeT 1/2 Typical Activity µGy h -1 GBq -1 at 1m Usable Steel Thickness (mm) Dose rate mGy/h at 1m 192 Ir74 days3.7 TBq13010 – 70480 60 Co5.2 years1.8 – 3.7 TBq35150 – 1501300* 169 Yb32 days0.185 TBq342.5 – 156.3 75 Se120 days1.48 TBq554 – 28100 * dose rate for 3.7 TBq source

20 IAEA 20 Control cablesTypical length 7.6 m Projection sheathsTypical length 2.1 m Collimators 4-7 HVLs typical Specialized source stopsDetachable, probes Magnetic clamps for large tanks, vessels Ancillary Equipment

21 IAEA 21 ISO 3999. Typical construction and lengths. Stop spring at end. Other types of construction that do not meet ISO 3999. Remote Controls

22 IAEA 22 Typical construction ISO 3999 tests. Other types of sheaths. Source stops. Specialized source stops, i.e. jet engine probes. Projection Sheaths and Stops

23 IAEA 23 Usage. General types. Construction of lead, tungsten or uranium. Directional or panoramic. Application of ALARA. Collimators

24 IAEA 24 are used to allow field transfers of an old (decayed) source for a new source; Source Changers Source changers: typically have a depleted uranium shield; have a locking system to prevent the source from accidentally coming out during the transfer; have two or more storage cavities or tubes.

25 IAEA 25 Source Changers (cont)

26 IAEA 26 X-ray Equipment May be panoramic or directional

27 IAEA 27 Control panel interlocks. warning systems. key switch to operate; removed when not in operation. X-ray Equipment Controls

28 IAEA 28 Pipe Crawler devices. Accelerators, cyclotrons and betatrons. Neutron radiography. Less Common Equipment

29 IAEA 29 meet national requirements for electrical safety; X-ray Equipment X-ray equipment must: have an appropriately labeled control panel; have cables (between the x-ray tube assembly and the control panel) of sufficient length. e.g. >20 m. have a control panel that is key operated to prevent inadvertent use.

30 IAEA 30 Used to radiograph pipe welds with the x-ray equipment inside the pipe. Travels under its own power Pipe Crawler X-ray Equipment

31 IAEA 31 Utilizes an external radiation source to provide stop / go information. Pipe Crawler X-ray Equipment (cont)

32 IAEA 32 Pipe Crawler X-ray Equipment (cont)

33 IAEA 33 Use high energy x-rays. Can be used in large shielded enclosure for large components. Portable units can be brought to temporary job sites Additional safety precautions are necessary due to the high energy radiation produced. Accelerators, Cyclotrons

34 IAEA 34 Accelerators – mobile or fixed

35 IAEA 35 Accelerators – mobile or fixed (cont)

36 IAEA 36 Accelerators, Cyclotrons

37 IAEA 37 Can be portable. New safety considerations. Betatrons

38 IAEA 38 Neutrons either source or accelerator produced. Will penetrate heavy metals and hydrogenous materials. Mostly used in research applications. Typical isotope is 252 Cf. Neutron Radiography

39 IAEA 39 Image from radiation is measured in real time by film, detection instrumentation or computer display. Used in conjunction with conveyer systems to move product. Typically large 60 Co source or x-rays. Real Time Radiography

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