2ObjectiveTo gain an overview of the types, designs and usage of the various types of industrial radiographic equipment including devices, sealed sources and ancillary equipment.
3Contents Gamma radiography devices, sources and ancillary equipment X-ray equipmentPipe crawler equipmentReal time radiography systemsAccelerators (linear accelerators and Betatrons)Neutron radiography equipment
4Types of Operation Category I the source is not removed from the exposure device and a shutter or other mechanism is used to expose the source.Category IIthe source is projected outside the shielded source container (via a wind out cable, pneumatic device, etc) through a projection sheath to the exposure position.Category Xspecial applications
5Category I Devices The source does not leave the device. It has a shutter mechanism.The source may be moved to the expose position by vacuum or air pressure.
6Category II DevicesThe source is projected out of the source container.Remote controls are used.The source is unshielded during the exposure (but should be collimated when practicable).Manual or automatic operation.
7Category X DevicesAre used for special applications i.e. gamma crawlers in pipelines.Their design and test requirements are dependent on the specific device application.
8Gamma Radiography – Projector Type Equipment Simple drawing of an example of the principals of projector type equipment
9Gamma Radiography - Principles of Use Gamma radiography source containers:are shielded with depleted uranium or lead;contain the sealed radioactive sealed source in a holder;use ancillary equipment to control the source movement;exposes the radioactive source to produce the radiograph.
10Portable Devices can be carried by one person; < 50 kg; are the most common type used;typically contain 192Ir in activities up to 3.7 TBq
11Gamma Radiography Equipment Standards ISO for devices and some ancillary equipmentISO 2919 for sealed sourcesIAEA SSR-6 for transport of radioactive packages1 International Standards Organization
12Mobile Devices usually on a cart or trolley for ease of movement; typically contain 60Co
13Fixed Devices used in one location; are heavy; may use TBq 60Co
14General Design Requirements Radiation levels (for user safety, particularly with portable devices, and transport).Lock (and source) security.Resistant to ingress of water, mud, sand (minimize the risk of failure of the source movement and lock mechanisms, minimize wear of the source guide tube, etc.Able to withstand extremes of temperature (to minimize risk of the source jamming).
15Tests for Source Containers “General” ConditionsThe device is to be fully operational after each testshielding efficiency test;vertical shock test;horizontal shock test;endurance test.“Accident” ConditionsThe device need not be operational after test9m drop test;1m puncture bar drop test.
16Maximum Rated Capacity Shielding EfficiencyDose Rates (µSv/h) at the Device’sMaximum Rated CapacityDevice Typeat 1 mat surfaceat 5 cmPortable20AND EITHER2000OR500Mobile501000Fixed100
17Sealed Source Construction Sealed capsule.ISO 2919 design and tests.Special form design and test.Leak test by user.
18Source Assemblies Source capsule crimped on wire. Wire can be teleflex, aircraft or shielded links.Connector styles.Endurance and tensile tests.
20Ancillary Equipment Control cables Typical length 7.6 m Projection sheaths Typical length 2.1 mCollimators HVLs typicalSpecialized source stops Detachable, probesMagnetic clamps for large tanks, vessels
21Remote Controls ISO 3999. Typical construction and lengths. Stop spring at end.Other types of construction that do not meet ISO 3999.
22Projection Sheaths and Stops Typical constructionISO 3999 tests.Other types of sheaths.Source stops.Specialized source stops, i.e. jet engine probes.
23Collimators Usage. General types. Construction of lead, tungsten or uranium.Directional or panoramic.Application of ALARA.
24Source Changers Source changers: are used to allow field transfers of an old (decayed) source for a new source;typically have a depleted uranium shield;have a locking system to prevent the source from accidentally coming out during the transfer;have two or more storage cavities or tubes.
27X-ray Equipment Controls Control panelinterlocks.warning systems.key switch to operate; removed when not in operation.
28Less Common Equipment Pipe Crawler devices. Accelerators, cyclotrons and betatrons.Neutron radiography.
29X-ray Equipment X-ray equipment must: meet national requirements for electrical safety;have an appropriately labeled control panel;have cables (between the x-ray tube assembly and the control panel) of sufficient length. e.g. >20 m.have a control panel that is key operated to prevent inadvertent use.
30Pipe Crawler X-ray Equipment Used to radiograph pipe welds with the x-ray equipment inside the pipe.Travels under its own power
31Pipe Crawler X-ray Equipment (cont) Utilizes an external radiation source to provide stop / go information.
33Accelerators, Cyclotrons Use high energy x-rays.Can be used in large shielded enclosure for large components.Portable units can be brought to temporary job sitesAdditional safety precautions are necessary due to the high energy radiation produced.
37BetatronsCan be portable.New safety considerations.
38Neutron Radiography Neutrons either source or accelerator produced. Will penetrate heavy metals and hydrogenous materials.Mostly used in research applications.Typical isotope is 252Cf.
39Real Time RadiographyImage from radiation is measured in real time by film, detection instrumentation or computer display.Used in conjunction with conveyer systems to move product.Typically large 60Co source or x-rays.