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Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material in the Caribbean Module 2.4 Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive.

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Presentation on theme: "Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material in the Caribbean Module 2.4 Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material in the Caribbean Module 2.4 Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material in the Caribbean Module 2.4 Transport Package Types and Material Classification Paul Gray June Panama

2 01 May 2015 Contents ENDOverview 2 1.The classification and selection of materials and package types 2.The main requirements for package types 3.Flow diagram for classification of radioactive material into appropriate UN number 4. Summary

3 01 May 2015 Contents END “Packaging” and “Packages” are terms of vital importance in Transport Regulations Package - The packaging with its radioactive contents as presented for transport Packaging - The assembly of components necessary to enclose the radioactive contents completely + = PACKAGING PACKAGE RADIOACTIVE CONTENTS

4 01 May 2015 Contents END Package Type Options for Transporting Radioactive Material Excepted packages Industrial packages Types IP-1, IP-2, IP-3 Type A packages Type B packages Type C packages Other (Fissile, UF6) RAM classified as LSA-I or SCO-I may also be transported unpackaged - This presentation will focus on Type A packages

5 01 May 2015 Contents END GRADED APPROACH TO TRANSPORT Package integrity is a function of the potential hazard of the contents and the response of a package under routine conditions of transport (incident free) – represented by general design requirements for all package types, normal conditions of transport (including minor mishaps) represented by Type A tests and accident conditions of transport (severe accidents) represented by Type B tests to assure the same level of safety for all types of packages Excepted Package Type A Package Type B Package

6 01 May 2015 Contents END Basic safety functions of packages for radioactive material Hazards of the radioactive Material Safety functions of the Packaging Radiotoxicity (Contamination, Incorporation) Radiation (α, β, γ, n-Radiation) Heat release Criticality Shielding Containment Heat transfer Criticality Safety 6

7 01 May 2015 Contents END Concept of a Safe Package – Graded Approach The greater the hazard the stronger the package 7 (Paras of IAEA Regulations TS-R-1, 2009)

8 01 May 2015 Contents END Excepted Package Radioactive material in limited quantity (fractions of A1/A2) representing low hazard meets general design requirements to withstand routine conditions of transport Surface dose rate ≤ 5 μSv/h Only marking with UN number, consignor/consignee (mass > 50 kg) No competent authority (CA) approval necessary but the consignor must, on request, make available for inspection by the relevant CA, documentary evidence of the compliance of the package design with all applicable requirements

9 01 May 2015 Contents END Designed in relation to its mass, volume and shape to be easily and safely transported and properly secured during transport Only external features intended for lifting are available during handling The external surfaces can be easily decontaminated The external surfaces shall not retain water Capable of withstanding the effects of acceleration, vibration and vibration resonance which may arise under routine conditions of transport Materials of construction, components and structures shall be physically and chemically compatible All valves should be protected against unauthorized operation The design shall take into account ambient temperatures and pressures that are likely to be encountered in routine conditions of transport Medical radioisotope excepted package General Design Requirements for Excepted Packages

10 01 May 2015 Contents END Industrial Package Type IP-1, IP-2, IP-3 Mainly used for radioactive waste transport Radioactive material must be classified as Low Specific Activity (LSA) material or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) design requirements for excepted packages + parts of design requirements to withstand normal conditions of transport (Type A package) Surface dose rate ≤ 2 mSv/h (dose rate at 2 m distance ≤ 0.1mSv/h) Dose rate at 3 m distance from unshielded LSA/SCO contents ≤ 10 mSv/h All marking and labelling requirements applicable No competent authority (CA) approval necessary but the consignor must, on request, make available for inspection by the relevant CA, documentary evidence of the compliance of the package design with all applicable requirements

11 01 May 2015 Contents END Type A and Type B Packages Type A Package small volume of radioisotope small package dimension and weight transported by air and locally by truck Hospitals, clinics, health centers primary customers Type B Package larger dimensions, weight and radioisotope volume Radiopharmaceuticals to radiopharmacies or intermediate processors who prepare unit doses - air shipments primarily but also road

12 01 May 2015 Contents END Type A Package Radioactive contents ≤ A1 or A2 meets Type A package design requirements to withstand normal conditions of transport Surface dose rate ≤ 2 mSv/h (dose rate at 2 m distance ≤ 0.1mSv/h) All marking and labelling requirements applicable No competent authority (CA) approval necessary but the consignor must, on request, make available for inspection by the relevant CA, documentary evidence of the compliance of the package design with all applicable requirements

13 01 May 2015 Contents END -Type A packages for shipping smaller amounts of medical isotopes, such as individual formulations ~80% of all medical isotope shipments shipped in Type A packages

14 01 May 2015 Contents END Layers of protection (Type A)  Security tape  Packing tape  Cardboard box  Styrofoam for impact and penetration protection  Lead pot for shielding  Absorbent material  Vial

15 01 May 2015 Contents END Basic Radionuclide Values for Transport of Radioactive Material The basic radionuclide values are to be found in Table 2 of SSR-6. For example: A1 for special form radioactive material (Special Form Certificate) A2 for all other forms

16 01 May 2015 Contents END Type IP-3 for solids, plus If designed to contain liquid radioactive material, the free drop test will be from a height of 9m onto an unyielding target followed by a penetration test from an increased height of 1.7m The design shall include sufficient absorbent material to absorb twice the volume of liquid contents, or must have a containment system composed of a primary inner and secondary outer containment components designed to enclose and retain the liquid contents For packages designed to contain gases, the package shall prevent loss or dispersal (tritium and noble gases are excepted) When subjected to water spray test, followed by free drop test, stacking test and penetration test (normal conditions of transport), loss or dispersal of contents would be prevented and no more than 20% increase in the maximum surface dose rate at any external surface Design Requirements for Type A Package Type A package (after 9m drop test)

17 01 May 2015 Contents END Type A Tests to Simulate Normal Conditions of Transport –Water spray test –Free drop test on unyielding target –Stacking test –Penetration test Resulting in the most damaging effect to the package

18 01 May 2015 Contents END Water Spray Test for Type A packages Simulates rainfall at rate of 50 mm/h Applied for one hour Package allowed to soak to maximum extent prior to next test Intended for packages utilizing fiberboard May be omitted (reasoned argument) if package materials are clearly not vulnerable to this test Para. 721

19 01 May 2015 Contents END Free Drop Test for Type A Packages Simulates drops during normal transport Specimen dropped so as to cause maximum damage Dropped onto flat, unyielding target Height of drop is graded –1.2 m if package <5000 kg –0.9 m if package > 5000 kg, < kg –0.6 m if package > kg, < kg –0.3 m if package > kg Para. 722

20 01 May 2015 Contents END Stacking Test for Type A Packages Intended to ensure effectiveness of package in static compression loading Specimen required to withstand for 24 h –5 times package weight stacked on top, or –13 kPa (0.13 kgf/cm 2 ) multiplied by the vertically- projected area of the package whichever is greater Para. 723

21 01 May 2015 Contents END Penetration Test for Type A Packages Uses a 6 kg non-deformable bar with 32 mm diameter hemispherical head Dropped onto package from height of 1 m Direction/point of impact must assure maximum potential damage Para. 724 Simulates objects falling onto package, impact from loading hooks or forklifts, without loss of contents

22 01 May 2015 Contents END Type B Package For large quantities of radioactive material as approved by the CA meets Type B package design requirements to withstand accident conditions of transport Surface dose rate ≤ 2 mSv/h (dose rate at 2 m distance ≤ 0.1mSv/h) All marking and labelling requirements applicable Subject to CA approval and package design approval certificate as Type B(U) or Type B(M) package issued by CA Type B tests to simulate accident conditions of transport

23 01 May 2015 Contents END Type B Packages (F-458) (Nuclear Medicine Shipments)  Type B(U) container can weigh 125 kg kg.  Shipping molybdenum-99, used ultimately in some 80% of all nuclear medicine or diagnostic scans. Also used for I- 131

24 01 May 2015 Contents END Transport Packaging (Nuc. Med.) Thermal and impact protection some shielding 10” 7.25” ” 19.4” 15.8” Overpack Shielding Vessel Leak Proof Insert Radioactive shieldingContainment of isotope

25 01 May 2015 Contents END Layers of protection (Type B) (Nuc. Med.)

26 01 May 2015 Contents END 26 Cobalt - 60 Cobalt-60 pencils emit gamma radiation - this energy is harnessed to eliminate pathogens and microbes Cobalt-60: - A solid metal - Non-fissionable - Non-soluble - Non-dispersible - Non-flammable - Long half life - Large quantities per container - Sources and containers licensed year half-life

27 01 May 2015 Contents END At least one dimension not less than 5mm No break or shatter under Impact test – free drop from a height of 9m Percussion test – drop a 25mm diameter bar, 1.4 kg mass, from 1m height Bend test – minimum length 10cm, rigidly clamped in horizontal position with half length exposed No melting or dispersal in the heat test – 800 ºC for 10 minutes Example: Special Form in a Type A package –A 2 (0.6 TBq Cs137) –A 1 (2 TBq Cs137 Special Form) Special Form Requirements Special form radioactive material shall mean either an indispersible solid radioactive material or a sealed capsule containing radioactive material

28 01 May 2015 Contents END 28 Sea Freight Container Handling Containers must be able to withstand worst-case potential accident conditions

29 01 May 2015 Contents END 29 F-168: Type B(U) Package Large dimensions, weight and radioisotope holding capacity Cobalt-60 to sterilization facilities: - ports for export to overseas destinations - road/ocean/rail shipments

30 01 May 2015 Contents END 30 F-168 Package: Layers of Protection Steel-covered insulated fire shields for thermal protection Steel fins dissipate heat during normal conditions of transport and provide impact protection 11 inches (270 mm) of lead shielding, encased in steel for radiation protection Cage containing double- encapsulated sealed sources Weight: 5,445 kg (12,000 lbs)

31 01 May 2015 Contents END 31 F-168 Container Design – Shielding

32 01 May 2015 Contents END 32 F-168 Container Design - Plug

33 01 May 2015 Contents END Type B content limits The content limit is as defined in the package design safety case which is submitted to the competent authorities for assessment and approval Type B package requirements Type A, plus Capable of operating in ambient temperatures of -40ºC to +38 ºC Be capable of being left unattended for one week in an ambient of 38ºC plus insolation at equilibrium thermal conditions –with the heat generated by radioactive contents –package continues to meet its applicable requirements for containment, shielding, and criticality control (fissile contents) Design Requirements for Type B Package

34 01 May 2015 Contents END Restrict the loss of radioactive contents to A 2 per hour when subjected to Type A tests Restrict the loss of radioactive contents to A 2 in a week when subjected to Type B tests: –A free drop test from 9m onto an unyielding target –A penetration test –A fully engulfing fire test of 800ºC for 30 minutes –A water immersion test of 15m for a minimum of 8 hours –A water immersion test of 200m for 1 hour ( >10 5 A 2 ) A maximum normal operating pressure of 700 kPa (gauge) Design Requirements for Type B Package (cont.)

35 01 May 2015 Contents END Type B Tests - Accident Conditions of Transport Tests for Type B Packages are designed to simulate extremely severe accidents in surface transport modes

36 01 May 2015 Contents END Mechanical Tests for Type B Packages Drop from 9m onto unyielding target Para. 727 Drop from 1m onto flat top face of steel bar of 150 mm diameter mounted on unyielding surface

37 01 May 2015 Contents END Thermal Test for Type B Packages Package fully engulfed in thermal environment providing a heat flux equivalent to flames of at least 800°C from liquid hydrocarbon pool fire, for at least 30 minutes - –average flame emissivity > 0.9 –surface absorptivity = 0.8 Para. 728

38 01 May 2015 Contents END Immersion Test for Type B Packages Package immersed under 15 m head of water for 8h in attitude leading to maximum structural damage (test may be conducted on separate specimen) Enhanced water immersion test for packages containing more than 10 5 A 2 under 200m head of water for not less than 1h Paras. 729 and 730

39 01 May 2015 Contents END Classification of Radioactive Material 39 Radioactive material should be classified and assigned under the appropriate UN number and associated proper shipping name The UN number assigned depends on - the activity level of the radionuclides contained in the package, - the fissile or non-fissile properties of these radionuclides, - the type of package, and - the nature or form of the radioactive contents of the package, or - on whether there are special arrangements governing the transport operation.

40 01 May 2015 Contents END Summary Based on the safety concept of the IAEA transport regulations safety in transport is mainly assured by the package itself together with some control measures during transport and approval needs by the competent authority, where necessary Optimal characterization of radioactive contents is an essential pre-requisite for optimal package selection Package selection should take into consideration not only material type, but also contents limits and shipment constraints By using the flow diagram for classification of radioactive material into appropriate UN number proper package selection can be supported

41 01 May 2015 Contents END Questions? 41


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