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IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Overview of Industrial Radiography Sources and Accidents Day 5 – Lecture 3.

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Presentation on theme: "IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Overview of Industrial Radiography Sources and Accidents Day 5 – Lecture 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Overview of Industrial Radiography Sources and Accidents Day 5 – Lecture 3

2 IAEA To understand:- the applications of industrial radiography the potential for accidents during the use of industrial radiography radiation sources. Objectives 2

3 IAEA The beneficial uses of ionizing radiation as used in industrial radiography practices The potential harmful effects due to the lack of and/or effectiveness of an adequate and appropriate radiation safety program The consequences of radiological accidents Contents 3

4 IAEA Industrial radiography is:- a process of non-destructive testing for examining the quality of a component or product; What is Industrial Radiography? most often utilized for quality control of metal fabrication for the oil/gas industry; also used to test a range of other products. 4

5 IAEA Imaging Principles 5

6 IAEA the types of radionuclides and activities used; work environments, that may range from clean laboratories to fabrication workshops and mining environments; equipment design and the work procedures that are essential to protect both the radiation worker and the public. Overview of Industrial Radiography Equipment Knowledge is required of:- the devices that use ionizing radiation from radiation sources (radioactive substances and x-ray devices) for industrial radiography; 6

7 IAEA 7 Roentgen discovers x-rays in 1895 Early x-ray tubes were unreliable Vacuum x-ray tube and heated filament (Coolidge-1913) 200kVp achieved in 1922 History

8 IAEA 1930s and 1940s 226 Ra was used. 60 Co and 192 Ir after World War II History (cont) 8

9 IAEA Common gamma source projectors directional x-ray panoramic x-ray x-ray crawlers gamma crawlers crawler control sources Uncommon betatron linear accelerator neutron radiography torch devices fluoroscopy Types of Industrial Radiography Equipment 9

10 IAEA Has three main components:- x-ray tube assembly; x-ray control panel; high tension (HT) cables. X-ray Equipment 10

11 IAEA Special Considerations survey meters with appropriate response operator training shielding Betatron 11

12 IAEA Special applications on-shore pipelines off-shore pipelines (on a barge) remotely controlled with a separate ‘control’ source, typically 137 Cs. Gamma crawler equipment 12

13 IAEA Radioactive Sources and some properties

14 IAEA Projector-type radiography equipment

15 IAEA Source containers must comply with recognized standards to ensure that exposures to users and the public are kept As Low As Reasonable Achievable. The shielding of source containers must remain intact following any credible accident or incident. The shielding of this container (right) remained intact following a severe fire at the licensed premises. Source containers 15

16 IAEA Fluoroscopy 16

17 IAEA 48 industrial radiography accidents 1 were reported to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission between 1971 and1980. Severe injuries and a number of deaths have since been reported and investigated. Industrial Radiography Accidents 1 involving doses greater than 50 mGy to the whole body or 750 mGy to a part of the body. (Ref: NUREG/BR-0024). Many accidents may go unreported because those responsible fear the legal consequences. 17

18 IAEA IAEA Safety Report Lessons Learned from Accidents in Industrial Radiography. Series No.7:- 43 cases; 9 involving the public or other non-radiation workers. Industrial Radiography Accidents (cont)

19 IAEA 185 GBq 192 Ir in shirt pocket for 90 minutes estimated skin dose of 30 Gy; whole body as 2-5 Gy Industrial Radiography Accidents (cont) Severe injuries to a non-radiation worker resulting from the radiography worker failing to use a survey meter to confirm the source had been returned to the shielded container. Day 15 19

20 IAEA 137 Cs industrial radiography source; Argentina 1968 Industrial Radiography Accidents (cont) Poor source security leading to severe injuries and death 20

21 IAEA 137 Cs industrial radiography source; Argentina 1968 Industrial Radiography Accidents (cont) Poor source security leading to severe injuries and death Doses Gy (localized) Gy (internal organs) 0.6 Gy (head) 21

22 IAEA 1.37 TBq 192 Ir. 2 days after accident; blister on upper thigh. Yanango, Peru 1999 Industrial Radiography Accidents (cont) 22

23 IAEA Source not properly secured. Loss not apparent for 6 hours. Skin dose at 1cm estimated at 10 kGy; right leg amputated. The worker’s wife and two children were also exposed. Industrial Radiography Accidents (cont) 23

24 IAEA Severe deterministic effects  death, loss of limbs, erythema Consequences of Accidents Increased stochastic risk  fatal cancer Environmental contamination Social & economic consequences 24

25 IAEA Causes identified as contributing to accidents: Causes of Accidents Lack of or inadequate regulatory framework  authorization  inspection  enforcement Lack of or inadequate safety culture  management  quality control  training and qualifications of workers 25

26 IAEA ACCIDENT Failure to use survey meter Equipment failure Safety procedures not followed Regulatory control lacking or inadequate Lack of safety program Inadequate or lack of training Causes of Accidents (cont) 26

27 IAEA ACCIDENT Regulatory control lacking or inadequate Causes of Accidents (cont) The Regulatory Authority has inadequate:- authorization processes; field inspections; inspection follow up. 27

28 IAEA ACCIDENT Inadequate or lack of training Causes of Accidents (cont) Lack of training (and ongoing training) results in:- unqualified and poorly instructed workers; poor or no understanding of emergency procedures 28

29 IAEA ACCIDENT Lack of safety program Causes of Accidents (cont) No safety program inadequate management lack of safety culture 29

30 IAEA ACCIDENT Safety procedures not followed Causes of Accidents (cont) Safety procedures not followed indicates:- lack of safety culture inadequate supervision lack of training 30

31 IAEA ACCIDENT Equipment failure Causes of Accidents (cont) Equipment failure indicates:- lack of manufacturer’s recommended maintenance; poor use of equipment; equipment being used beyond design limits 31

32 IAEA ACCIDENT Failure to use survey meter Causes of Accidents (cont) Failure to use survey meter indicates- insufficient and/or non-functioning meters; inadequate user safety training; hurrying to complete the work (employer pressure); lack of safety culture. 32

33 IAEA maintenance; control. Safe operation requires: training; Safe use of Radiation Sources Radiation Sources: are widely used; SAFETY CULTURE } provide substantial benefits; but can cause harmful effects (injury or death). 33

34 IAEA the RISKS BENEFITS should outweigh Safe use of Radiation Sources (cont) 34

35 IAEA IAEA, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series No. 115, Vienna (1996). IAEA, Organization and Implementation of a National Regulatory Infrastructure Governing Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources, IAEA-TECDOC-1067, Vienna (1999). IAEA, Lessons learned from accidents in industrial radiography, (reports in) Safety Reports Series. IAEA, Accident reports. References 35

36 IAEA Consider the following industrial radiography equipment; portable x-ray; fixed x-ray; fixed gamma; portable gamma. Exercise Which has the greatest potential to cause serious harm to the user and to the public? Why? 36


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