Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Safe Transport Day 9 – Lecture 8.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Safe Transport Day 9 – Lecture 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Safe Transport Day 9 – Lecture 8

2 IAEA 2 Objective To provide an overview of the International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials

3 IAEA General requirements for transport of radioactive sources. Procedures for the dispatch of radioactive sources. Procedures for the receipt of radioactive sources. Contents 3

4 IAEA The transport of radioactive sources shall be subject to the requirements of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SSR-6) and any applicable international convention. General requirements for transport 4

5 IAEA 5 the transport of radioactive material by all modes of transport:  on land (road, rail, inland waterway)  on water (maritime)  in the air The Regulations apply to: SSR 6 Regulations do not apply to internal movement of Radioactive material within an establishment where appropriate safety regulations are in force and where the movement does not involve public roads or railways

6 IAEA General requirements for transport Package Types Marking, Labeling and Placarding Documentation Vehicle Training Approval by competent authority Transfer / receipt documents 6

7 IAEA Excepted Package Industrial Packages - Type 1 (Type IP-1) - Type 2 (Type IP-2) - Type 3 (Type IP-3) Type A Package Type B Packages -Type B(U) -Type B(M) Type C Package 7 Classification Package [para 231] i.e. the packaging with its radioactive contents

8 IAEA Packages for sources are designated on the basis of the A 1 (special form) and A 2 (non-special form) activity values assigned to each radionuclide, given in Table 2 of SSR 6 Examples Cs-137A 1 = 2 TBqA 2 = 600 GBq Am-241A 1 = 10 TBqA 2 = 1 GBq Co-60A1 = 0,4 TBqA2 = 0,4 TBq Note: A1 and A2 can have the same value Contents Limits - Sources 8

9 IAEA Special Form Radioactive Material [para 239] Either an indispersible solid radioactive material or a sealed capsule containing radioactive material, that has been subjected to, and has passed, specified tests (Paras and 802). Approval of the material by a competent authority is also required. 9 Definitions used in the International Regulations Special form radioactive material affords certain mechanical protection to the radioactive material that may (dependant on the nature of the radiological hazard) allow greater quantities of material to be transported in a given type of package than would otherwise be possible.

10 IAEA Contents Limits – LSA and SCO Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) are split into groups on the basis of activity concentration / surface contamination levels There are three groups of LSA material: LSA-I, LSA-II and LSA-III There are two groups of SCO: SCO-I and SCO-II Once the LSA material or SCO group is known, the correct IP can be determined by referring to Table 4 of TS-R-1 10

11 IAEA Transport Index [para 244] The Transport Index (TI) is designed to give an indication of the maximum equivalent dose rate (DR) at 1metre from the surface of a package: 11 DR = (TI x 10) µSv h -1 The higher the TI number, the higher the dose rate. Maximum TI = 10, unless transport is under “Exclusive Use” Criticality Safety Index [para 218] The Criticality Safety Index (CSI) is designed to prevent excess accumulation of fissile material in any given storage or stowage area. 1 metre Transport Index and Criticality Safety Index

12 IAEA UN Numbers and Proper Shipping Names Examples (see Table 1 of SSR 6 for complete list) UN 2910, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE, LIMITED QUANTITY OF MATERIAL UN 3332, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE A PACKAGE, SPECIAL FORM, non-fissile or fissile excepted UN3328, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE B(U) PACKAGE, FISSILE 12

13 IAEA Excepted Package Industrial Packages - Type 1 (Type IP-1) - Type 2 (Type IP-2) - Type 3 (Type IP-3) Type A Package Type B Packages -Type B(U) -Type B(M) Type C Package 13 Packages [para 231] i.e. the packaging with its radioactive contents Packages types

14 IAEA Small quantities of radioactive material that present a very low hazard; Package design requirements apply but no test requirements; Maximum surface dose rate = 5 µSv h -1 [para 516]; Max TI = 0; Maximum activity - see SSR-6 Table-4 14 Excepted Packages - the least restrictive package Packages types (cont)

15 IAEA Maximum surface dose rate = 2 mSv h -1 (unless under Exclusive Use) [paras 527, 528]; Max TI = 10 (unless under Exclusive Use) [para 526]; Contents must be Low Specific Activity material (LSA-I, LSA-II or LSA-III) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO-I or SCO-II), as appropriate [paras 226, 408, 241, 413]. Often in the form of drums, freight containers, etc.; Generally used to transport low specific activity materials in bulk quantities 15 Industrial Packages (Type IP-1, Type IP-2 Type IP-3 ) UN3322 Packages types (cont)

16 IAEA Maximum surface dose rate = 2 mSv h -1 (unless under Exclusive Use) [paras 527, 528]; Maximum TI = 10 (unless under Exclusive Use) [para 526]; Maximum activity = A1 (special form); otherwise A2; 16 Type A packages Probably the most common of all the package types; Used extensively to transport radiopharmaceuticals, such as 99Mo; 131I; 32P; 125I etc. Packaging may be single use or re-useable. Packages types (cont)

17 IAEA designed to survive severe accidents; Maximum surface dose rate = 2 mSv h -1 (unless under Exclusive Use); Maximum TI = 10 (unless under Exclusive Use); Maximum activity - Competent Authority Approved; Rigorous testing regime; Competent Authority Approval of design required. 17 Type B Packages – Type B (U) and Type B(M) Packages types (cont)

18 IAEA 18 Type B(M) packages require approval by the competent authorities of the country of origin of the design, and of the countries through or into which they are to be transported (multilateral approval). May also be used for the transport of irradiated nuclear fuel and other nuclear fuel cycle materials. Type B Packages Type B(U) packages require approval by the competent authority of the country of origin of the design (unilateral approval). Packages types (cont)

19 IAEA Designed to survive severe air accidents; Large quantities of radioactive material (for transport by air); Rigorous testing regime; Competent Authority Approval of design required. Uncommon! 19 Type C Packages Packages types (cont)

20 IAEA Additional requirements apply to the design and operation of packages used to carry fissile material, including the requirement for multilateral competent authority approval of the package design. 20 Fissile packages Packages types (cont)

21 IAEA Package Markings Excepted packages Address of consignor / consignee and UN number Type A and Industrial Packages As above and Proper Shipping Name, ‘TYPE A’ or ‘IP-1’, ‘IP- 2’ or ‘IP-3’ Type B packages As above and ‘TYPE B (U) or (M), mark of certifying authority, specific serial number and embossed radiation trefoil 21

22 IAEA Package Labels Excepted packages carry no labels on the outside. All other package types carry labels appropriate to the category of the package. The category of the package is based on the Transport Index (TI) and on the maximum radiation level at any point on external surface. 22

23 IAEA Categorization Transport index (TI) Max. radiation level (mSv/h) Category 1 m from the surface at the surface 00Up to 0.005I – white > 0 to 1> 0 to 0.01> to 0.5II – yellow > 1 to 10> 0.01 to 0.1> 0.5 to 2III – yellow > 10Over 0.1> 2 to 10 III – yellow (exclusive use) 23

24 IAEA  mSv/h at the package surface. 0 mSv/h at 1 m from surface. Category I Package – White label e.g. if the calculated TI is  0.05, the TI can be stated as 0. 24

25 IAEA >0.005 mSv/h and  0.5 mSv/h at the package surface.  0.01 mSv/h at 1 m from surface. e.g. if the calculated TI is  0.05 the TI should be stated as 0.1. Category II Package – Yellow 25

26 IAEA 0.5 mSv/h to  2 mSv/h at the package surface. Between 0.01 and 0.1 mSv/h at 1 m from surface. e.g. if the calculated TI is 1 the TI should be stated as 1. Category III Package – Yellow 26

27 IAEA Three placards on vehicle; both sides and rear + UN Number Not required if carrying only excepted packages Vehicle Placarding 27

28 IAEA Transport Document Must include name and address of consignor and consignee and details of the packages and their contents. Paragraphs 546 (particulars of consignment: 13 items) and 547 (consignor’s declaration) of SSR 6. Instructions for the carrier Must include requirements for handling, loading, carriage, unloading, any modal specific requirements, if necessary, and emergency arrangements. Documentation Requirements 28

29 IAEA Training Requirements All those involved in transport of radioactive material must receive appropriate training, commensurate with their responsibilities Training should cover: hazards involved, necessary precautions, requirements of the regulations, actions in emergency, etc Training should be given prior to starting work and refreshed periodically Quality Management System A QA program based on standards acceptable to the competent authority shall be established and implemented for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection of all special form material, low dispersible material, packages and transport operations. Training and Quality Management Requirements 29

30 IAEA Radiation Protection Program Systematic arrangements aimed at keeping doses to those involved in the transport of radioactive material as low as reasonably achievable, established for assessed effective dose according to para 303 of SSR 6. Emergency Arrangements Consignors must have appropriate emergency arrangements in place. The IAEA publishes guidance on emergency preparedness in relation to the transport of radioactive materials in guidance document TS-G-1.2. Radiation Protection Program and Emergency Arrangements 30

31 IAEA Dispatch of radioactive sources – disused sources For disused or spent radioactive sources, the consignor shall provide information to the consignee and the Regulatory Body for each package or container, including: the nuclide, number and activity of sources; a description of the source construction including leakage tests; a special form approval certificate, where appropriate; a description of the package. 31

32 IAEA an approval certificate for a Type B package details of any special arrangements required, including multilateral approvals, where necessary; and a copy of the transport documents (to be sent to the consignee by fax or before dispatch). Dispatch of radioactive sources – disused sources (cont) The licensee shall not dispatch the consignment unless confirmation has been received from the consignee of willingness to accept it. 32

33 IAEA To prepare the consignment for dispatch, the consignor shall: Dispatch of radioactive sources – disused sources (cont) (b)close the package or container securely and examine and test it (noting any procedures from the supplier) to ensure that it is in good condition; (c)carry out external contamination monitoring of the package or container to ensure that there is no residual radioactive material present and that it is suitable for transport. (a)load the sources into the package, verifying the details to be provided to the consignee (e.g. serial numbers) and to be entered on the transport document; 33

34 IAEA To prepare the consignment for dispatch, the consignor shall: Dispatch of radioactive sources – disused sources (cont) (e)complete a transport document. (d)carry out dose-rate monitoring of the package or container and attach appropriate transport labels. The transport labels relating to the sources contained in the package or container when received should not be reused; and 34

35 IAEA Dispatch of radioactive sources – disused sources (cont) Arrangements shall also be made, where necessary, for: (a)special handling equipment (e.g. cranes, forklift trucks) during transfer from one mode of transport to another, or between vehicles; (b)ensuring that the package or container is securely attached to the vehicle and that the vehicle is correctly placard; (c)dealing with border controls; and (d)the security of the consignment during transport, particularly during delays or overnight stops. 35

36 IAEA Dispatch of radioactive sources – empty packages The consignor shall be required to return the packaging or containers for the radioactive sources to the source supplier after receipt of a consignment of radioactive material. These containers may be returned either empty or containing spent or disused radioactive sources, when they meet the requirements carry out dose-rate of outside and contamination monitoring of both the inside and inside of the package to ensure compliance with limits and that it can be treated as an empty package or container; For empty packages, the consignor shall: 36

37 IAEA Dispatch of radioactive sources – empty packages (cont) examine the package or container to ensure it is in good condition and close it securely in accordance with any procedures provided by the source supplier; attach a label to the outside of the package or container stating UN For empty packages, the consignor shall: remove or cover all transport labels relating to the sources that were contained in the package or container; 37

38 IAEA Dispatch of radioactive sources – empty packages (cont) contact the source supplier and agree on the transport route and responsibility for each stage of the journey; and inform the supplier of the proposed date of dispatch. For empty packages, the consignor shall: complete a transport document; 38

39 IAEA Loading and unloading operations may expose persons to dose rates in excess of those experienced in normal operation of the facility. Loading and unloading of sources The licensee shall: make an evaluation of source loading and unloading procedures to ensure that the exposure of persons is kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). For packages with approval certificate, procedures are included in the approval and cannot be changed without permission (designer / competent authority involved) 39

40 IAEA Dispatch of radioactive substances Prior to each shipment of radioactive material to be dispatched to the licensee, there shall be a detailed exchange of information with the source supplier. (b)a description of the source construction and performance tests, including leakage tests; (c)special form approval certificate, where appropriate; (a)the nuclide, number and activity of sources; For each package or container this information shall include: 40

41 IAEA Dispatch of radioactive substances (cont) (d)a description of the package; (e)approval certificate for Type B package; (f)details of any special arrangements required, including multilateral approvals, where necessary; and (g)a copy of the transport documents, to be sent to the licensee (requirement for consignor) by fax or before dispatch if possible. 41

42 IAEA Dispatch of radioactive substances (cont) The licensee shall not agree to the supplier dispatching the consignment unless satisfied that all the previous items are satisfactory. The supplier and licensee should agree on the transport route and responsibility for each stage of the journey. Arrangements shall also be made, where necessary, for: (a)special handling equipment (e.g. cranes, forklift trucks) during transfer from one mode of transport to another, or between vehicles; 42

43 IAEA Dispatch of radioactive substances (cont) (d)ensuring that the package or container is securely attached to the vehicle and that the vehicle is correctly placard; (b)checking radiation dose rates from the package or container; (c)checking that correct transport labels are attached to the package or container, and replacing any that are damaged or illegible; (e)dealing with border controls (customs); and (f)the security of the consignment during transport, particularly during delays or overnight stops. 43

44 IAEA Records of source inventory (source characteristics, locations); Responsibilities – Registrants and Licensees Accountability and security of sources: Periodic inventory of sources; Records of receipt, transfer and disposal; Transfers only to receiver holding a license; Prompt communication of information to the Regulatory Authority regarding decontrolled, lost, stolen or missing sources. 44

45 IAEA 45


Download ppt "IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Safe Transport Day 9 – Lecture 8."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google