5/1/2015 8 Wide Disparity Among Sub-groups The NAEP and state assessments show large achievement gaps between subgroups of students disaggregated by race/ethnicity, and poverty status. At 4 th grade the gap between: White and African American students is 27 % White and Hispanic students is 24 – 26 %. High to Low SES students is 23 – 25 % McCombs et al, RAND Report, 2004
2011 Urban District Results 5/1/2015 9 (Washington, D.C.) – Reading scores of fourth- and eighth-grade students in 21 urban public school districts on the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) followed the national trend by remaining mostly flat, with no significant change from 2009.
5/1/2015 10 SAT and ACT Since the 1960’s verbal scores on the SAT have declined by about.5 SD. On the ACT, barely 50% are able to read adequately to manage college and work-place tasks.
5/1/2015 11 SAT TAMAR LEWIN Published: NY Times September 24, 2012 For the high school class of 2012, the average score on the critical reading section of the SAT college entrance exam, 496, was down 1 point from the previous year, as was the average writing score, 488. Also unchanged: only 43 percent of the 1.66 million test-takers achieved the benchmark score, 1550, that indicates readiness for college. Among students whose parents have bachelor’s degrees, though, 60 percent were college ready.
5/1/2015 12 SAT / ACT Dr. Danielle Thompson The state with the best scores on ACT and SAT tests is at 42% proficiency. This means that 42% of the students who take the test make the benchmark score. Meeting benchmark is correlated with having a 50% chance of obtaining a 'B' in a college course and a 75% chance of getting a 'C.' The top state was New Hampshire. North Dakota only has a 21% proficiency level, Tennessee is 18%.
5/1/2015 13 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2009 http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/ http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011004_1.pdf
PISA 2009 Reading Literacy: OECD U.S. average score of 500 not measurably different from the OECD average score of 493 o 6 OECD countries had higher average scores. o 14 were not measurably different from the United States. o 13 had lower average scores. 14 SOURCE: Fleischman et al. (2010). Highlights From PISA 2009: Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context (NCES 2011-004).
PISA 2009 Reading Literacy: All Among all participants o 9 had higher average scores than the United States. o 16 were not measurably different. o 39 had lower average scores. 15 SOURCE: Fleischman et al. (2010). Highlights From PISA 2009: Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context (NCES 2011-004).
5/1/2015 16 Scores of U.S. 15-year-old students on combined reading literacy scale at selected percentiles: 2000, 2003, and 2009
PISA 2009 Reading Proficiency Levels Highest proficiency level is level 6. Below level 2 students may not be able to consistently “make valid comparisons or contrasts” based on even a single feature in the text or consistently “recognize the main idea in a text unless it is prominent” in the text. At level 4 students are described by PISA as capable of “difficult reading tasks” and “critically evaluating” a text. 17 SOURCE: Fleischman et al. (2010). Highlights From PISA 2009: Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context (NCES 2011-004).
U.S. at the OECD Average for Key Proficiency Levels in Reading 18 percent scored below level 2 (not measurably different from OECD). 30 percent scored at or above level 4 (not measurably different from OECD). 18 SOURCE: Fleischman et al. (2010). Highlights From PISA 2009: Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context (NCES 2011-004).
5/1/2015 19 Percentage distribution of 15-year-old students in the United States and OECD countries on combined reading literacy scale, by proficiency level: 2009 SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2009.
Average U.S. Reading Score Unchanged From 2000 There was no measurable change in the U.S. average scores over time. There was no measurable difference between U.S. and the OECD average scores in 2000 or in 2009. OECD averages are based on 27 OECD member countries that participated in 2000 and 2009. 495 20 SOURCE: Fleischman et al. (2010). Highlights From PISA 2009: Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context (NCES 2011-004).
5/1/2015 21 Dr. Danielle Thompson The big message I took away from it was that we in the U.S. are doing nothing. We are not learning form the mistakes of others (e.g. Korea) or from the success of others (e.g. Finland). And, there are success in Korea to gain from too. The data of the PISA tests was pretty much buried when it came out and Thomas Friedman and Michael Mandelbaulm talk about that in their book That Use to be Us. I guess as a country we don't like to be seen as failing.
5/1/2015 22 What is Good Enough? To read comics in the newspaper, the basic level may be enough. To digest thoughtful essays from which responsible citizens must understand the issues to become informed voters, at least a proficient level would be required. Caccamise et al., 2005
5/1/2015 23 What is Good Enough? To reach higher levels of academic achievement requiring such abilities as literary criticism and understanding of science and technology, levels of proficiency must be reached. Caccamise et al., 2005
5/1/2015 24 If a child in a modern society like ours does not learn to read.. Well enough to comprehend Effortlessly enough to render reading pleasurable Fluently enough to read reflectively and broadly across all content areas
5/1/2015 25 If a child in a modern society like ours does not learn to read.. He/her chances for a fulfilling life, by whatever measure- academic success, financial success, the ability to find interesting work, personal autonomy, self-esteem- are practically nil E. Mcpike (1995)
5/1/2015 26 If a child in a modern society like ours does not learn to read.. 25% of the adult population in the US are functionally illiterate (U.S. Dept. Labor) In the general population between a third and half of all adults have only very basic literacy skills. (Carlisle, 2002) 70% or more of low SES, minority children fall behind early and are not likely to catch up to grade level
5/1/2015 27 The Higher Education Income Gap ( infoplease.com ) Year9-12 Grade no completio n HSBachelorr’ s Degree Master’s Degree Doctorate 199020,90226,65339,32849,73457,108 200025,09534,30356,33468,32280,250 200833,43543,16582,19799,516129,773 Women in 2009 21,93725,00040,10054,00083,762
5/1/2015 28 The Higher Education Income Gap Educational attainment, which created the American middle class, is no longer rising. The super-elite lavishes unlimited resources on its children, while public schools are starved of funding. This is the new Serrata. An elite education is increasingly available only to those already at the top. Bill Clinton and Barack Obama enrolled their daughters in an exclusive private school. CHRYSTIA FREELAND, NY Times, October 12, 2012
5/1/2015 29 The Higher Education Income Gap The reality is that it is those at the top, particularly the tippy-top, of the economic pyramid who have been most effective at capturing government support — and at getting others to pay for it. CHRYSTIA FREELAND, NY Times, October 12, 2012
5/1/2015 30 The Higher Education Income Gap Exhibit A is the bipartisan, $700 billion rescue of Wall Street in 2008. Exhibit B is the crony recovery. The economists Emmanuel Saez and Thomas Piketty found that 93 percent of the income gains from the 2009-10 recovery went to the top 1 percent of taxpayers. The top 0.01 percent captured 37 percent of these additional earnings, gaining an average of $4.2 million per household. CHRYSTIA FREELAND, NY Times, October 12, 2012
5/1/2015 31 Between 1973 and 1998 In skilled blue-collar, clerical, and related professions the percentage of workers who were high school dropouts fell by two thirds while the percentage of workers with some college or a college degree more than doubled. In less-skilled blue-collar service the percentage of workers who were high school dropouts fell by nearly half while the percentage of workers with some college or a college degree tripled Reading Next Report, 2004
5/1/2015 32 Changing Literacy Demands The 25 fastest growing professions have far greater than average literacy demands, while the 25 fastest declining professions have lower than average literacy demands. Barton, 2000 as cited in the Reading Next Report, 2004
5/1/2015 33 Juvenile Detainees: Illiteracy is perhaps the strongest common denominator among individuals in corrections (Kidder, 1990) The average reading level nationally for ninth grade youth in correctional facilities is fourth grade (Project Read; 1978).
5/1/2015 34 Juvenile Detainees: While poor reading skills and poor academic performance are not direct causes of criminal activity, adolescents who have deficits in these areas are disproportionately represented in correctional institutions. Some studies have explored the correlation between illiteracy and criminal behavior. They have found that individuals with a low literacy level are at greater risk for criminal behavior and incarceration (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1997).
5/1/2015 35 Vermont Juvenile Detainees: CHSVT Typically, 50 % of the students under the age of 22 have a prior special education history. Typically 60- 75% of the students under the age of 21 enrolled in CHSVT are not functionally literate. This year the number of enrolled students was 486. Mary Koen, CHSVT, 2005
5/1/2015 36 Juvenile Detainees: In order to reduce crime rates and recidivism of students with disabilities and ethnic minorities in juvenile corrections, correctional educators need to incorporate programs that place a strong emphasis on literacy development. Advocates for correctional education believe that education prevents crime (Pell, 1997).
5/1/2015 37 Reading is the Reason That Most “LD” Children Are Identified At least 85% of the “LD” population are on IEP’s for serious reading problems and related issues with spoken and written language Most of these children are identified for services after 3 rd grade
5/1/2015 38 “LD” Identification in the WNESU Eligible for SPED in the WNESU Elementary School Average Bellows Falls Middle School Bellows Falls UHSD #27 VT Dept of Ed. 2003 10.9 %28 %24.2 %
5/1/2015 39 The Importance of Early Intervention There was striking continuity in emergent literacy skills from pre-K to kindergarten. Individual differences were set by age four and quite stable thereafter. Lonigan, 2003
5/1/2015 40 Meaningful Differences A majority of children who are judged to have a reading disability at grade 2 continue to have this classification at grade eight. Scarborough (1998)
5/1/2015 41 Meaningful Differences Only about 5-10% of children who read satisfactorily in the primary grades ever stumble later, and 65-75% of children designated as reading disabled early on continue to read poorly throughout their school careers (and beyond). Scarborough, 2001. Cited in Carlisle, 2002
5/1/2015 42 Children Don’t Catch Up… Once children fall behind, they are likely to stay behind and the gap is likely to widen C. Juel, 1994 (Harvard Graduate School of Education) J. Torgesen, K. Stanovich, F. Vellutino (NICHD) A. Biemiller (Toronto) R. Good, E. Kame’enui, D. Simmons (U. of Oregon) S. Shaywitz and J. Fletcher (Connecticut Longitudinal Study)
5/1/2015 43 Reading Trajectories Are Established Early
5/1/2015 44 Traditional Reading Tests Identify Children Too Late
5/1/2015 45 Established Reading Trajectories Are Difficult to Change
5/1/2015 46 In other words… Once behind, children who are poor readers do not catch up, unless we intervene specifically and intensively enough to match their need for systematic, direct, explicit instruction. Moats, 2004
5/1/2015 47 Children who are poor readers do not catch up If we do not catch students early (by 2 nd grade at the latest), improvement in their relative standing is much less likely and costs much more. Although many reading disabilities can be remediated or ameliorated by the end of first grade with systematic, explicit, phonics-emphasis instruction (Ryder, Tunmer, & Greaney, 2008; Mathes, Denton, Fletcher, Anthony, Francis, & Schatschneider, 2005) intensive effort on the part of teachers and students is required to achieve modest gains once students are beyond kindergarten and first grade. Moats, fall, 2012
5/1/2015 48 Children who are poor readers do not catch up Morris, Lovett, Wolf, Sevcik, Stinbach, Frijters, & Shapiro (2012) recently showed that high school poor readers can improve.5 standard deviations in reading after expert, intensive, closely monitored, theoretically sound, comprehensive, integrated instruction was delivered for 70 hours. The teachers in these studies were experts in the subject matter, were well trained in the methodology and remedial strategies, and worked with well-defined populations of students. Moats, fall, 2012
5/1/2015 49 Children who are poor readers do not catch up Aspects of reading instruction promoted by the CCSS (reading of harder, complex texts; reading aloud; reading in the content areas; writing arguments) may be appropriate for older students who already know how to read and write, but may serve only to frustrate less- skilled students if the text is impossible for them to read independently and if insufficient attention is devoted to building the requisite language skills that enable improvement. Moats, fall, 2012
5/1/2015 50 Remediation verses Prevention Torgesen et al., 2003
5/1/2015 51 Most Children Can Learn to Read Nationally, if core classroom instruction conformed to empirically proven best practice, only about 6% or less of children should be expected to experience reading problems requiring secondary intervention. Denton and Mathes, 2003 Incidence of “below basic” reading was 5% in the 1st grade regular classrooms where the code- based program was well implemented; very few children had severe reading problems. Foorman and Moats, 2003
5/1/2015 52 What Do We Know? Too many students are not reading proficiently. Many students are identified for poor reading in the intermediate grades or later. Many students who are struggling readers go unidentified. Being unable to read with skill increases the risk of a host of educational, vocational and social problems.
5/1/2015 53 II. The Reading Brain Brain growth in young children The Simple View of Reading The PDP Model for Reading Phonological Processor Orthographic Processor Meaning Processor Context Processor
5/1/2015 54 What Do We Know About Brain Development? Most neural cells are formed in the first 4 months of gestation. Neural cell migration is only ½ complete at birth. Brain weight at: birth = 400 g 11 months = 850 g 3 years old = 1100 g
5/1/2015 55 Neurons Connect at Synapses The forming of synaptic connections begins at about 7 weeks after conception and continues throughout life, but especially in the first two years. Neurons that are hooked up but not used may die (cell pruning). Thus, synaptic connectivity is greatly shaped by experience. Berninger and Richards, 2002
5/1/2015 57 Brain Plasticity in Response to Instruction Brain growth after birth is mainly attributed to the branching and sprouting of dendrites, the “magic trees of mind” in response to experience. Diamond & Hopson 1998.
5/1/2015 58 Brain Plasticity in Response to Instruction Experience changes dendrites in specific ways. In older adults the density of dendritic branching was correlated with years of education. (Berninger and Richards, 2002)
5/1/2015 59 The Simple View of Reading R = D X C Reading does not equal the sum of decoding and comprehension, for neither decoding in the absence of comprehension, nor comprehension in the absence of decoding, leads to any amount of reading. Gough, Hoover and Peterson, (1990)
5/1/2015 60 The Simple View of Reading R = D X C Learning to Read Reading to Learn Decoding Fluency Vocabulary Phonological Oral Language Processing Semantics Print Knowledge Syntax World Knowledge
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension Comprehension Monitoring Strategies Instruction Oral Language Development Vocabulary Knowledge Reading Fluency Phonics, Word Study, and Spelling Letter Name Knowledge Phonemic Awareness +
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012) The SVR is based on the idea that the children’s fundamental task in learning to read is to discover how print maps onto their existing spoken language.
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012) The process of learning to derive meaning from print can therefore be adversely affected in one of two ways, or both: 1. The child’s spoken language system may be deficient in various ways, or 2. the process by which print is connected to the child’s spoken language system may be defective.
5/1/2015 64 What Characterizes a Poor Reader? Specific weaknesses in phonological processing, letter knowledge, and alphabetic understanding predict reading outcomes, K-2 “Lower level” processing difficulties with the alphabetic code: phoneme awareness, phonological memory letter naming speed knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences accuracy and fluency of word recognition Vocabulary, knowledge of literate language (as children get older)
Let’s Learn How to Read Together we will experience what emergent reading is about by putting ourselves in the shoes of a beginning reader and taking the alphabetic system out for a walk. This experience comes to you care of Dr. Louisa Moats.
5/1/2015 67 Four Part Processing System for Reading background information sentence context vocabulary Context Processor Orthographic Processor Phonological Processor Meaning Processor writing output speech output reading input speech sound system letter memory phonics
5/1/2015 68 The Phonological Processor How many speech sounds in: eighth ___ squawked _____ Reverse the speech sounds to make a new word zone ____ toga ____ What’s the third speech sound in: exact ____ extra ______
5/1/2015 69 Phonological Sensitivity The most powerful predictors of later reading and writing skills …turned out to be those requiring phonological awareness, specifically the analytic ability to manipulate phonemes in words. Lieberman et al., 1989
5/1/2015 70 The Phonological Processor: Broca’s Area; the Inferior Frontal Gurus The Inferior Frontal Gyrus Broadmann Areas 6/44 Associated with: phonological recoding during reading phonological memory and syntactical processing **F 15.11
5/1/2015 71 Inferior Frontal Gyrus Deficits: T hree different symptoms Broca’s Aphasia: disrupted speech including: articulation that is slow and non-fluent mispronounced words great difficulty saying function words Much stronger receptive than expressive language.
5/1/2015 72 Inferior Frontal Gyrus Deficits: Anomia IF poor perception THEN poor quality of representation or coding. IF poor coding THEN poor durability in storage. IF poor durability in storage THEN poor retrieval. Smith, Simmons and Kameenui, 1998
5/1/2015 73 Inferior Frontal Gyrus Deficits: T hree different symptoms Anomia: the inability to retrieve words. In Ancient Egypt they wrote in hydraulics. Areas of the dessert were cultivated by irritation. Sir Francis Drake circumcised the world with a 100-foot clipper. From Anguished English. Richard Lederer, 1989
5/1/2015 74 Inferior Frontal Gyrus Deficits: T hree different symptoms Carlson (2004) lists these symptoms in a hierarchy beginning with: articulation difficulties, then anomia (losing the programs for individual words), and finally grammatical processing.
5/1/2015 75 Four Part Processing System for Reading background information sentence context vocabulary Context Processor Orthographic Processor Phonological Processor Meaning Processor writing output speech output reading input speech sound system letter memory phonics
5/1/2015 76 The Orthographic Processor Nottinghamshire Panjalamcoorchy Swami Chetanananda
5/1/2015 77 The Orthographic Processor gerentomorphosis Karivaradharajan Adams, 1990
5/1/2015 78 The Orthographic Processor The Ventral System
5/1/2015 79 The Orthographic Processor The Ventral System “Moving anteriorly though the ventral system, sub- regions respond to word and word-like stimuli in a progressively abstracted and linguistic manner.” (Sandak et al., p. 275) The most posterior (extrstriatal) components are activated very early responding ‘indiscriminately’ to letters and letter strings.
5/1/2015 80 The Orthographic Processor The Ventral System The pattern recognition components of the VWFA respond more actively to orthographically regular pseudowords as well as real words. Extending anteriorly (forward) into the middle and inferior temporal gyri (MTG, ITG) these regions processes semantic information and are most sensitive to real words compared to pseudo- words or letter strings possibly signifying the activation of semantic processes.
5/1/2015 82 Four Part Processing System for Reading background information sentence context vocabulary Context Processor Orthographic Processor Phonological Processor Meaning Processor writing output speech output reading input speech sound system letter memory phonics
5/1/2015 83 The Angular Gyrus in the The Dorsal Stream Sandak at al. found that the angular gyrus in the dorsal system and middle- inferior temporal gyri in the ventral system appear to have abstract lexico- semantic functions. (Sandak et al., 2004. p 284)
5/1/2015 84 Parallel Processing : The Phonological and Meaning Processors Soda wicket woof tucker shirt court, end whinny retched a cordage offer groin murder, pick dinner window an sore debtor pore oil worming worse lion inner bet. Ladle Rat Rotten Hut Cited in Adams, 1990
5/1/2015 85 Four Part Processing System for Reading background information sentence context vocabulary Context Processor Orthographic Processor Phonological Processor Meaning Processor writing output speech output reading input speech sound system letter memory phonics
5/1/2015 86 The Meaning & Contextual Processors Disambiguate Headline News Child’s Stool Great for Use in Garden Stud Tires Out Drunk Gets Nine Months in Violin Case Iraqi Head Seeks Arms C/O Pinker, 1994
5/1/2015 87 Brain: Functional Neuroanatomy Each processing system operates in a distinct region of the left brain. Rapid communication among regions is essential. Reading problems can originate in one or several systems. All systems must be educated.
Decoding Susan Brady (2012) To understand the content of text, whether a story or an informational piece, one must be able to access the words in print. Ultimately a skilled reader achieves a huge sight word vocabulary—meaning that the words, whether regular or not, are recognized quickly and without effort. To reach that goal, the reader has to understand how the writing code works, as that is how the sounds in spoken words are represented in writing.
Decoding Susan Brady (2012) Children who learn the code system quickly and well generally become strong readers, engage in wider reading, and have more opportunities to increase word recognition, vocabulary, world knowledge, and understanding of text features.
Decoding Susan Brady (2012) Those who struggle to learn the code too often fail to catch up, experience many fewer of the benefits skilled reading affords, and are likely to have reading comprehension problems (e.g., Wagner & Ridgewell, 2009).
Decoding Susan Brady (2012) Competence in decoding involves further knowledge that pertains to vowel syllable patterns, multisyllabic words, and understanding of morphological structures. This knowledge serves expansion of word recognition skills across grades.
Word Study: Sequence of Instruction The sequence begins with aspects of teaching phonological awareness and letter-sound correspondences in the early primary years and then proceeds to instruction of common syllable patterns. Morpheme patterns are introduced in later grades. Marcia Henry, (1997)
5/1/2015 93 Beyond PA and Phonics: Teach Word Study The student must learn that words can be broken down in several ways; That words are made of letters that have sounds; and that words are made up of syllables and morphemes. Marcia Henry (1988)
Decoding Susan Brady (2012) Every time a student encounters a word that has not been seen before in print (estimated in one upper-elementary grade to occur approximately 10,000 times (Nagy & Anderson,1984)), decoding prowess constitutes the major factor in students’ ability to accurately identify the word. 5/1/2015 94
5/1/2015 95 Emergent Decoding: Tangel & Blackman, 1999 “Train” students to Read and Spell 1. KLMPARP 2. J, G, CH, R 3. JRA, TAN, HAN 4. TRAN, JRAN 5. TRANE, TRAYN 6. TRAIN
5/1/2015 96 Silly Bulls: Grabbing bull by horns The Vowel is the Glue in a Syllable 1. prcpn, swd, dmtr, nnsns 2. p♠rc♠p♠n♠, s♠♠w♠♠d, ♠d♠m♠t♠r, n♠ns♠ns♠
5/1/2015 97 Why Teach Syllables? To remember vowel spellings: written, writing grapple, maple To “chunk” unfamiliar words quickly: ac com plish re in car na tion To distinguish similar words: hopping, hoping sloping, slopping
5/1/2015 98 Syllabification Simulation Once upon a gymbeff, a taundy rapsig named Gub found a tix of pertollic asquees.
5/1/2015 99 Syllabification Simulation Once u pon a gym beff, a taun dy rap sig named Gub found a tix of per tol lic as quees.
5/1/2015 100 Teach Syllable Accent Use Homographs (same Writing): ob ject / ob ject con duct / conduct Schwa Vowel Detective: ton, cot ton // pen, o pen // pet, car pet age, im age // tain, cap tain // ten, rot ten Call Your Dog! re PUG nant
Lesson 4, Comic Conduct Exercise #6: Identical Twins subject (noun)- Recess is my favourite subject in school. subject (verb)- We subject you to the study of homographs to learn about syllable accent. object (noun)- That weird looking object is your brother’s head. object (verb)- I object to this use of my brother’s head and feel that we are heading in the wrong direction.
Lesson 2, Closed Up: Exercise #8: Schwash Your Mouth pen happenpettrumpet ton cartongelangel banturbangusfungus estslimmesttomcustom fortefforttenkitten lopgalloplongallon sonlessondensudden
5/1/2015 103 Teach Syllable Accent Call Your Dog! re PUG nant PACH y derm CAN ta lope mal O do rous hip po POT a mus an thro po MOR phic
Upper Grade Content Reading A transversal is a line that intersects two or more coplanar lines in different points. In the next diagram, t is a transversal of h and k. At first the dragonfly nymph will feed on the many microscopic creatures that live in the pond.
Upper Grade Content Reading Latin and Norman Influence A transversal is a line that intersects two or more coplanar lines in different points. In the diagram, t is a transversal of h and k. At first the dragonfly nymph will feed on the many microscopic creatures that live in the pond.
Upper Grade Content Reading Add Greek Influence A transversal is a line that intersects two or more coplanar lines in different points. In the diagram, t is a transversal of h and k. At first the dragonfly nymph will feed on the many microscopic creatures that live in the pond.
Principles for Instruction Developmental Sequence - Simple and Common - to More Complex and Specialized. Transparency - perfect vs. perform Productivity - reject, project, inject, abject, object, … - brontosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, Cryptosaurus, spherosaurus, Brookosaurus, Idaosaurus…
English Is a “Deep” Alphabetic System We spell by sound and by meaning: wanted, hummed, pitched boys, dishes, compress, compression medic, medicine, medicinal
In spite of changes in pronunciation, morphemes are often spelled consistently. metal / metallic heal / health sign / signal reside / residence soft / soften music / musician child / children critic / criticize
In spite of changes in pronunciation, morphemes are often spelled consistently. metal / metallic heal / health sign / signal reside / residence soft / soften music / musician child / children critic / criticize
The Meaning Processor dejection rejection objection injector projector construct instruction in destructible obstruction re construction
1. Transcription and Parking Spots poplay / probably Parking Lot Method
1. Transcription and Parking Spots poplay / probably __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ / p r ŏ b ә b l Ē / Parking Lot Method
2. Park the letters poplay / probably p __ o __ __ p l ay /p r ŏ b ә b l Ē / l y 3. Identify the boo-boos Parking Lot Method
1. Transcription and Parking Spots maniths / mammoths Parking Lot Method
1. Transcription and Parking Spots maniths / mammoths __ __ __ / m ă m ә Ө s / Parking Lot Method
2. Park the letters maniths / mammoths m a n i th s / m ă m ә Ө s / mm o 3. Identify the boo-boos Parking Lot Method
1. Transcription and Parking Spots imeditly / immediately Parking Lot Method
1. Transcription and Parking Spots imeditly / immediately __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ / ә m Ē d Ē ә t l Ē / Parking Lot Method
2. Park the letters imeditly / immediately i m e d i __ t l y / ә m Ē d Ē ә t l y / i m a t e 3. Identify the boo-boos Parking Lot Method
5/1/2015 122 The Simple View of Reading R = D X C Learning to Read Reading to Learn Decoding Fluency Vocabulary Phonological Oral Language Processing Semantics Print Knowledge Syntax World Knowledge
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012) Studies report that D and C each made significant independent contributions to the variance in R (e.g., Aaron et al., 2008; Hoover & Gough, 1990; Sabatini, Sawaki, Shore, & Scarborough, 2010; Vellutino et al., 2007). Research has further shown that the amount of shared variance between D and C increases with grade level, with correlation coefficients in the later grades ranging from about.30 to.70 (Hoover & Tunmer, 1993; Keenan, Betjemann, & Olson, 2008).
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012) Tunmer and Hoover (1993) argued that the substantial amount of shared variance between D and C in the later grades is most likely a consequence of the reciprocally facilitating relationships between reading achievement and the two constituent components of reading, a pattern referred to as positive (rich-get-richer) Matthew effects (Stanovich, 1986).
5/1/2015 125 Oral Language: Vocabulary Vocabulary is associated with good text comprehension, but there is evidence for a relation with word reading as well. Harm and Seidenberg (2004) suggest a direct link from the written to the semantic representation exists for familiar words in their connectionist model. Cain & Oakhill (2006)
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012) As children become better readers, both the amount and difficulty of the material they read increases. This in turn leads to: greater practice opportunities for building fluency and facilitating implicit learning of letter–sound patterns (which improves D; see Tunmer & Nicholson, 2011), growth in vocabulary knowledge, ability to comprehend more syntactically complex sentences, development of richer and more elaborate knowledge bases (which improves C).
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012) The correlation between C and R increases with grade level whereas that between D and R tends to decrease (Hoover & Tunmer, 1993). The relationship between C and R gradually becomes the dominant one because in the early stages of learning to read the ability to recognize the words of text limits the ability to derive meaning from text.
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension Regardless of instructional orientation, be it whole language or skills inculcation, there is a broad base of agreement that the most important goal of reading education is to develop readers who can derive meaning from texts. Pressley, 1997
Meaningful from the Start A comprehensive reading program attends to meaning from the start. Oral language development, vocabulary development, the steady building of background knowledge, extensive exposure to quality children’s literature, discussion and retelling and dramatization of stories should begin with the earliest years of schooling. Moats, 1998
5/1/2015 130 What About Comprehension Instruction? Most older struggling readers can read words accurately, but they do not comprehend what they read. Reading Next, 2004
5/1/2015 131 The State of Reading Comprehension Instruction Despite the best efforts of teachers and the seeming attentiveness of students, students often fail to understand the ideas presented in their textbooks. In particular, students often are unable to connect the ideas they have encountered to information that is presented later. Beck, 1998
5/1/2015 132 The State of Reading Comprehension Instruction It’s about the Boston Tea Party, and it’s about a whole bunch of, like, they were bringing loads over and it was rotten, and all that, so they went back and got more loads and dumped all the tea into the water and stuff like that. 8 th Grade Student quoted in Beck, 2001
5/1/2015 133 Strategies Instruction Teachers frequently assessed comprehension by asking students comprehension questions. However, they did not actually teach students how to comprehend. in Pressley, 1997
The Construction Integration Model Discourse processing occurs in a series of cycles. In each cycle there is a construction phase and an integration phase. Bottom up and top down. Kintsch, 1988
A Procedure The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups depending on their makeup. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set. It’s better to do too few things at once than too many.
A Medical Resident Arrives for Work Angie rushed through the doors of the old brick building. She almost ran straight into a shadow gazer talking grim-faced with a blade. With a quick apology, she brushed past them for the pup rounds. She had to know if things were zero delta with yesterday’s first hit. After all, what looked like a soapbox derby had turned into a bounce-back. No matter what happened overnight. It would make a great story to tell her father, the rear admiral.
The Construction Integration Model Comprehension consists of building a mental structure based both on information in the text and on information in memory. Initial information lays a foundation, and subsequent sentences are mapped onto the foundation to reflect both local relations and the topic structure. Gernsbacher, 1990
The Construction Integration Model Poor comprehenders develop too many unconnected substructures rather than a fully integrated mental representation. Too many substructures are built that do not really connect to the real structure of the text. Whitney, 1998
Walter Kintsch (2005) Both top-down and bottom-up processes are integral parts of perception, problem-solving, and comprehension. The question for theorists is not top- down or bottom-up, but how do these processes interact to produce fluent comprehension?
C includes the component processes of: Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012) Locating individual words in lexical memory, Determining the intended meaning of individual words (most of which are polysemous in English), Assigning appropriate syntactic structures to sentences, Deriving meaning from individually structured sentences, and Building meaningful discourse on the basis of sentential meaning.
5/1/2015 142 Oral Language: Vocabulary Children begin to learn words by their first birthday, and by their second they hoover them up at a rate of one every two hours. By the time they enter school children command 13,000 words, and then the pace picks up, because new words rain down on them from both speech and print. A typical high-school graduate knows about 60,000 words; a literate adult, perhaps twice that number. Steven Pinker (1999)
5/1/2015 143 Area of Convergence #1 Vocabulary differences among students is extensive, grows over time, and becomes apparent early. Smith (1941) reported that high achieving third graders had vocabularies that were about equal to those of low-achieving twelfth graders. Baker, Simmons and Kameenui, 1998 (pp 188-189)
5/1/2015 144 Vocabulary Instruction We can directly access the meanings of only the words we already know. The referents of new words can be verbally explained only in terms of old words. Adams, 1990 (p 205)
5/1/2015 145 Vocabulary Instruction This can be done either explicitly, by presenting their definitions, or implicitly, by setting them in a context of old words that effectively constrain their meanings. Adams, 1990 (p 205)
5/1/2015 146 Vocabulary Instruction Students who knew more word meanings prior to studying unknown words learned the meanings of more new words after studying. Prior knowledge contributes more to vocabulary learning than memorization strategies. Griswold, (1987), cited in Baker et al. (1998 p 196)
5/1/2015 147 Vocabulary Instruction There is no evidence that any single method or comprehensive program seriously decreases the vocabulary gap that exists between students with poor vocabularies and those with rich vocabularies. Carlisle, 2002 (p 185)
5/1/2015 148 Fast Mapping vs. Extended Mapping Fast mapping: learning a cursory meaning of a new word quickly through an initial exposure. Extended Mapping: Full understanding of a word’s meaning in various contexts and connotative associations. EM sometimes takes years and many experiences with a word. Carey (1978) cited in Baker et al. (1998, p 195)
5/1/2015 149 Fast Mapping vs. Extended Mapping School-aged children may be working on as many as 1,600 word mappings simultaneously. So, if a student learns the meaning of 8 new vocabulary words per day, the majority of those words are learned only at a very basic level of understanding. Carey (1978) cited in Baker et al. (1998, p 195)
5/1/2015 150 Inflexible Word Learning Strategies Acquiring the meaning of words begins with a rough formulation of word meaning followed by empty slots reserved for additional information. Students with poor vocabularies had difficulties adjusting their model of word meaning when they acquired new information about the meaning of a word. Van Daalen-Kapteijns et al. cited in Baker et al. (1998, p 197)
5/1/2015 151 Words are Slippery Customers Trying to expand children’s vocabularies by teaching them words one by one, ten by ten, or even 100 by 100 would appear to be an exercise in futility. Vocabulary instruction ought, instead to teach skills and strategies that would help children become independent word learners. Nagy and Anderson (1984) cited in Baker et al. (1998, p 199)
Top Down: Knowledge of Text Structure NarrativeStory Grammars ExpositorySequence Descriptive Enumeration Compare / Contrast Problem / Solution / Effect
Strategies Instruction: Knowledge of Text Structure Text structure and student knowledge of text structure are highly related to reading comprehension. Dickson, Simmons & Kameenui, 1998
Strategies Instruction: Knowledge of Text Structure A reader uses a particular arrangement of ideas and information (the structure of a text) as a kind of framework into which individual events or pieces of information are fit. Without knowledge of the structure of a written text, a reader’s understanding may be fragmented and poorly organized, and recall of the text is jeopardized. Carlisle, 2002
The Dragonfly: Life in Two Worlds For butterflies, bees, and many other insects, metamorphosis means a change from a slow-moving larva that does little but eat and store energy to a winged creature that can fly through the air to find a mate and a new home. But for the dragonfly, metamorphosis brings an even more amazing change. In the course of its life, this insect lives in two completely different worlds.
Reading Strategies In the Content Areas The idea is that content-area teachers emphasize the reading and writing practices that are specific to their subjects so students are encouraged to read and write like historians, scientists, mathematicians, and other subject-area experts. Reading Next, 2004
Circling the Wagons Adolescents entering the adult world in the 21 st century will read and write more than at any time in human history. They will need advanced levels of literacy to perform their jobs, run their households, act as citizens, and conduct their personal lives.
Circling the Wagons They will need literacy to cope with the flood of information they will find everywhere they turn. They will need literacy to feed their imaginations so they can create the world of the future. Position Statement from the International Reading Association, 1999
5/1/2015 160 The Simple View of Reading Bruce Rosow, Ed.D. March, 2013