Presentation on theme: "Food Hygiene awareness workshop"— Presentation transcript:
1Food Hygiene awareness workshop Joanne FrangiamoreMichelle AndersonFood hygiene is important to ensure that the food we make is safe to eat. It must be prepared and stored so that it is kept free of contaminants.Contaminants are things that get into the food that will either cause injury or illness.
2Hazards Physical Contamination Dirt and dustFragments of shell/boneFingernailParts of machineryStringBroken glassPhysical contaminants are things that we can see. Examples are listed above. They cause physical harm to the body usually in the mouth. For example cuts and broken teeth, or choking if they are accidentally swallowed.
3Chemical contamination PerfumeCleaning productsIndustrial chemicalsChemicals generally become associated with food because they are used when food is not covered. Or the chemical may not be washed out of a container properly before a food item is placed in the same container.Chemicals commonly cause a very quick reaction when swallowed. They usually cause the person to vomit.It is important to keep chemicals in their original containers and only carry out cleaning when food items are put away.
4Biological contamination YeastBacteriaVirusesMouldsIf a food is contaminated with any of these micro-organisms the food can taste and smell normal. Because these living creatures are microscopic we cannot see them in the food. It is only some time later that they cause illness. The symptoms are generally abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea.
5Allergen contamination NutsWheatShell fishLactoseAllergens cause a specific reaction in certain people. The food is not unsafe for other people to eat. It is an individual reaction. We should label our foods if they contain the above allergens because the reaction for those who are allergic to the allergen can be life threatening.
6Food PoisoningBacterial contamination is the most common cause of food poisoning.Bacteria are present everywhere but particularly on dirty surfaces, in raw meats fish or poultry, on dirty vegetables or associated with dirty utensils or equipment. People also carry several sorts of bacteria or virus that can cause food poisoning.Examples of food poisoning bacteria are:Salmonella – on raw chickens or eggsStaphylococcus – on peopleListeria – in soft cheese or pateE. Coli – on raw meats or soil vegetablesFood poisoning bacteria can be controlled by thorough cooking and keeping foods in the correct environment. This will be explained as we go along.
7Food Poisoning In 2007 92,000 reported cases in UK Food Standards Agency estimates that there are more than 850,000 cases per year in the UK.Most cases are not reported.
8Food poisoningCertain types of food are more likely to cause food poisoning than others – High risk foodsThese are ready to eats foods such as:RiceSoft cheesePateMeat and poultryThe thing that makes these foods high risk is the following:They are ready to eat and do not need to be cooked again before eatingThey are high in accessible moister or waterThey are high in proteins
9Ideal conditions for bacteria The ideal conditions for bacterial growth are:Food ,moisture ,warmth and timeBacteria grow very quickly to form microscopic colonies. A single bacteria will divide to form two in 20 minutes if the conditions are right. Therefore it is important that we store and keep foods under temperature control at all times. It is important to only make food when we need to eat it and not days in advance.Bacteria will grow at various temperatures between 5 – 63 C, however they multiply or grow fastest at 37 C.The foods that bacteria grow best on are those that are high in protein and moisture. For example cooked meats and fish, dairy products, gravy, custard, cooked pasta or rice. These are also the foods that we might eat without further cooking, things that we might put in sandwiches or salad. These are the foods that have a “use by” date. We must use all these foods before the end of the “use by” date and not after.The amount of moisture bacteria need to grow is very small and is harder to control. Only dried or preserved or pickled foods have altered their state so that the bacteria cannot use the moisture that is their.
10Danger ZoneKeep foods safe by making sure they are not left at room temperature.We can only kill bacteria by ensuring foods are cooked to a high enough temperature. Freezing or chilling does not kill bacteria it only makes them dormant. The danger zone when bacteria multiply is the temperature range 5 – 63 C. Foods must be kept in this temperature range for the shortest possible time.
11Everyone is responsible! Everyone who works with food has a duty to make sure it is safe and does not cause the customer harmThe four main controls to reduce the risk of harm are:Cross-contaminationCookingChillingCleaning
12Cross contaminationContamination can occur at any time in food preparation or service.Cross contamination occurs when bacteria are spread from one food to another.Examples:From hands to boards and onto foodFrom cloths to equipment and onto foodFrom foods dripping onto each otherCross contamination can be controlled by the following:Cleaning equipment in between different food tasksEnsuring all foods are covered at all times and if they are likely to drip they are in solid containersUsing antibacterial cleaners on chopping boards and food surfacesWashing our hands between different tasks
13Your Hands!Wash your hands regularly and properly to prevent cross contamination.Before entering a food prep areaBetween handling raw and high risk foodAfter taking a breakAfter going to the toiletAfter blowing your noseAfter carrying out cleaning jobsAfter handling waste.For the safety of the food we prepare managing our hand cleanliness is probably the most important thing that we can do. Where possible use an antibacterial hand soap.
14Hand washing To wash your hands you will need; Hot water Liquid soap Disposable rollAir dryerWhen we wash our hands we must ensure we are thorough. Washing between the fingers and around creases in particular; ensuring rings are removed when preparing food. We must ensure that we dry our hands thoroughly so that there is no moisture left that might encourage bacterial growth.
15Cross contaminationCloths are a major source of cross contamination in food areasUse disposable cloths/paper roll for cleaning tasksKeep raw and ready to eat foods apart where possible store separatelyPests must be controlled as they can contaminate food, spread disease and damage premises.Keep all foods covered at all timesKeeping raw and ready to eat foods apart is very important.All foods in storage must be fully covered and protected from contact with other foods. Where ever possible raw foods must go in the bottom of the fridge or freezer with cooked or ready to eat foods on top. This stops any drips or contact with the raw food contaminating the cooked foods.
16Cooking It is essential to cook food properly to kill harmful bacteria Cook, or reheat food to a minimum core temperature of 75oc for two secondsIf holding food hot, the minimum core temperature must not fall below 63ocIf we do not have a temperature probe to check how hot the food is we can use other signs. These include the following:Food is steaming all over and deep into the core of the food if it is a deep itemJuices from meat run clear and are free from any signs of bloodIf the food is in a sauce or gravy, the liquid will bubble showing that it has reached a temperature of 100 C.It is not enough for these signs to be seen on the surface of the food only – they must be evidenced throughout the food. It is easy to cook something on the outside and to leave it undercooked on the inside. Always follow the manufacturers instructions on how to cook a food safely if they are provided. This is especially important when using a microwave, make sure that you do not forget to stir the foods and always allow for the standing time as cooking continues during this period.
17ChillingHigh risk foods or foods with a use by date need to be kept chilled.It is recommended to keep cold food at 5oc or belowChill hot food to 5oc or below as quickly as possibleFrozen food should be stored at -18oc or colderKeep food out of the ‘danger zone’ (5oc to 63oc)Defrost food in the fridge and ensure that the product is fully defrosted before cooking
18CleaningCleaning is the process of making something free from dirt, grease and contamination.Detergents remove dirt and dissolve grease but do not kill bacteria eg fairy liquidDisinfectants reduce bacteria to a safe levelSanitisers both clean and disinfect at the same time eg. DettoxAll cleaning chemicals must be food safeChemicals should be stored away from foodWhen washing by hand, use a detergent first to remove grease and dirt and then a disinfectant to reduce bacteria to a safe level.Remember using sanitisers or disinfectants properly will ensure that any bacteria that are present on surfaces or utensils are killed.
19Cleaning To keep food safe adopt a clean as you go approach Disinfect boards and knives and food contact surfaces between different food typesHand contact surfaces need to be disinfected.Remember to change washing water once it is dirty.