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Chapter 11 Cleaning and Sanitizing

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1 Chapter 11 Cleaning and Sanitizing
Instructor Notes Food can easily be contaminated if you don’t keep your facility and equipment clean and sanitized. Surfaces that touch food must be cleaned and sanitized the right way and at the right times. Cleaning includes using the right type of cleaner for a job. Sanitizing involves using a method that works for your operation and following the right steps to make sure it is effective.

2 How and When to Clean and Sanitize
Cleaning Process of removing food and other dirt from a surface All surfaces must be cleaned and rinsed Sanitizing Process of reducing pathogens on a surface to safe levels Surfaces that touch food must be cleaned and sanitized Instructor Notes All surfaces must be cleaned and rinsed. This includes walls, storage shelves, and garbage containers. However, any surface that touches food, such as knives, stockpots, and cutting boards, must be cleaned and sanitized. 11-2

3 How and When to Clean and Sanitize
Steps for cleaning and sanitizing: Clean the surface Rinse the surface Sanitize the surface Allow the surface to air-dry 11-3

4 How and When to Clean and Sanitize
Food-contact surfaces must be cleaned and sanitized: After they are used Before working with a different type of food Any time a task was interrupted and the items may have been contaminated At 4-hour intervals if the items are in constant use 11-4

5 Cleaners Cleaners must be: When using them: Stable and noncorrosive
Safe to use When using them: Follow manufacturers’ instructions Never combine cleaners Instructor Notes If not used the right way, cleaners may not work and can even be dangerous. Never combine cleaners. Combining ammonia and chlorine bleach, for example, produces chlorine gas. This gas can be fatal. Always check the chemical’s label for the intended use. 11-5

6 Cleaners Types of Detergents General-purpose detergents
Remove dirt from floors, walls, ceilings, prep surfaces and most equipment surfaces Heavy-duty detergents Remove wax, aged or dried dirt, wax, and baked-on grease Instructor Notes The detergent you use will depend on your task. 11-6

7 Cleaners Degreasers Have ingredients for dissolving grease
Work well on burned-on grease Backsplashes, oven doors, and range hoods Instructor Notes Solvent cleaners, often called degreasers, are alkaline detergents containing a grease-dissolving agent. They are usually only effective at full strength, making them costly to use. 11-7

8 Cleaners Delimers Acid cleaners used on mineral deposits and dirt that other cleaners can’t remove Steam tables Dishwashers Instructor Notes Follow manufacturer’s instructions carefully and use acid cleaners with caution. 11-8

9 Cleaners Abrasive Cleaners
Have a scouring agent that helps scrub hard-to-remove dirt Used to remove baked-on food Can scratch surfaces 11-9

10 Sanitizing Surfaces can be sanitized using: Heat Chemicals
The water must be at least 171F°(77°C) Immerse the item for 30 seconds Chemicals Chlorine Iodine Quats Instructor Notes Food-contact surfaces must be sanitized after they have been cleaned and rinsed. This can be done by using heat or chemicals. One way to sanitize items is to soak them in hot water. You may need a heating device to keep the water hot enough for sanitizing. Be sure to check the water with a thermometer. Another way to sanitize items is to run them through a high-temperature dishwasher. You can check the water temperature in these machines in two ways: 1) Attach a temperature-sensitive label or tape to an item and run it through the dishwasher; 2) Place a high-temperature thermometer in a dish rack and run it through the dishwasher. Three common types of chemical sanitizers are chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compounds, or quats. Chemical sanitizers are regulated by state and federal environmental protection agencies (EPAs). For a list of approved sanitizers, check the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40CFR —“Food-Contact Surface Sanitizing Solutions.” For recommendations, check with your local regulatory authority. 11-10

11 Chemical Sanitizing Food-contact surfaces can be sanitized by either:
Soaking them in a sanitizing solution Rinsing, swabbing, or spraying them with a sanitizing solution In some cases a detergent- sanitizer can be used: Use it once to clean Use it a second time to sanitize Instructor Notes Tableware, utensils, and equipment can be sanitized by soaking them in sanitizing solution. Or you can rinse, swab, or spray them with sanitizing solution. In some cases, you can use detergent-sanitizer blend to sanitize. Operations that have two-compartment sinks often use these. If you use a detergent-sanitizer blend, use it once to clean. Then use it a second time to sanitize. 11-11

12 Sanitizer Effectiveness
Concentration Sanitizers should be mixed with water to the right concentration Not enough sanitizer: May make the solution weak and useless Too much sanitizer: May make the solution too strong, unsafe, and corrode metal Instructor Notes Sanitizer solution is a mix of chemical sanitizer and water. The concentration of this mix—the amount of sanitizer to water—is critical. Too much water may make the solution weak and useless. Too much sanitizer may make the solution too strong and unsafe. It could also leave a bad taste on items or corrode metal. 11-12

13 Sanitizer Effectiveness
Concentration continued Check concentration with a test kit Change the solution when: It’s dirty The concentration is too low Instructor Notes Concentration is measured in parts per million (ppm). To check the concentration of a sanitizer solution, use a test kit. Make sure it is made for the sanitizer being used. These kits are usually available from the chemical manufacturer or supplier. Hard water, food bits, and leftover detergent can reduce the solution’s effectiveness. Change the solution when it looks dirty or its concentration is too low. Check the concentration often. 11-13

14 Sanitizer Effectiveness
Temperature Follow manufacturer’s recommendations for the right temperature Contact Time The sanitizer must make contact with the object for a specific amount of time Minimum times differ for each sanitizer 11-14

15 Dishwashing High-Temperature Machines Chemical-Sanitizing Machines
Final sanitizing rinse must be at least 180°F (82°C) 165°F (74°C) for stationary rack, single-temperature machines Chemical-Sanitizing Machines Follow the temperature guidelines provided by the manufacturer Instructor Notes Dishwashing machines sanitize by using either hot water or a chemical sanitizing solution. High-temperature machines use hot water to clean and sanitize. Therefore, water temperature is critical. If the water is not hot enough, items will not be sanitized. If the water is too hot, it may vaporize before the items have been sanitized. Extremely hot water can also bake food onto the items. The dishwasher must have a built-in thermometer, which checks water temperature at the manifold. This is where the water sprays into the tank. Operations that clean and sanitize a lot of tableware may need to install a heating device. This device will make sure the machines have enough hot water. Chemical-sanitizing machines can clean and sanitize items at much lower temperatures. Since sanitizers require different water temperatures, follow the dishwasher manufacturer’s guidelines 11-16

16 Dishwasher Operation Guidelines Clean the machine as often as needed
Scrape, rinse, or soak items before washing Use the right rack for the items being washed Check racks as they come out of the machine Air-dry all items Check the machine’s water temperature and pressure Instructor Notes Clean the machine as often as needed, checking it at least once a day. Clear spray nozzles of food and foreign objects. Use a delimer to remove mineral deposits when needed. Fill tanks with clean water, and make sure detergent and sanitizer dispensers are filled. Presoak items with dried-on food. Load dish racks so the water spray will reach all surfaces. Never overload dish racks. As each rack comes out of the machine, check it for dirty items. If you find some, run them through the machine again. Most items will need only one pass through the machine if the water temperature is right and the correct steps are followed. Never use a towel to dry items. You could recontaminate them. Check water temperature and pressure. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for dishwasher settings. 11-17

17 Manual Dishwashing Steps for Cleaning and Sanitizing Instructor Notes
A three-compartment sink station must have: Area for rinsing away food or for scraping food into garbage containers Drain boards to hold both dirty and clean items Thermometer to measure water temperature Clock with a second hand to time how long items have been in the sanitizer Before cleaning and sanitizing items in a three-compartment sink, each sink and all work surfaces must be cleaned and sanitized. To clean and sanitize items in a three-compartment sink: Rinse, scrape, or soak items before washing them. Clean items in the first sink. Wash them in a detergent solution at least 110˚F (43˚C). Use a brush, cloth, or nylon scrub pad to loosen dirt. Change the detergent solution when the suds are gone or the water is dirty. Rinse items in the second sink. Spray them with water or dip them in it. Make sure you remove all traces of food and detergent. If dipping the items, change the rinse water when it becomes dirty or full of suds. Sanitize items in the third sink. Soak them in hot water or a sanitizer solution. If using hot water to sanitize items, follow the requirements for heat sanitizing. If using a chemical sanitizer, follow the guidelines for sanitizer effectiveness. Air-dry items. Place items upside down so they will drain. 11-18

18 Apply Your Knowledge: What’s Wrong with This Picture?
How many problems can you spot? Instructor Notes Answers: There is no clock with a second hand. Employees would not be able to time how long an item has been in the sanitizer. Soap suds from the wash compartment have been carried over into the rinse compartment and the sanitizer compartment. This can deplete the sanitizer. A cleaned and sanitized pot is not being air-dried correctly. It should be placed upside down. 18

19 Storing Tableware and Equipment
When storing clean and sanitized tableware and equipment: Store them at least 6” (15 cm) off the floor Clean and sanitize drawers and shelves before items are stored Store glasses and cups upside down on a clean and sanitized shelf or rack Store utensils with handles up Cover the food-contact surfaces of stationary equipment until ready for use Instructor Notes Once utensils, tableware, and equipment have been cleaned and sanitized, they must be stored in a way that will protect them from contamination. Tableware and utensils should be protected from dirt and moisture. Clean and sanitize trays and carts used to carry clean tableware and utensils. Check them daily, and clean as often as needed. 11-19

20 Cleaning and Sanitizing in the Operation
When cleaning the premises: Clean nonfood-contact surfaces regularly Includes floors, ceilings, walls, equipment exteriors, etc. Prevents dust, dirt, food residue and other debris from building up. 11-21

21 Cleaning and Sanitizing in the Operation
Prevent cleaning tools from contaminating surfaces: Clean tools before storing them Assign tools for specific tasks Replace worn tools Never use towels meant for cleaning food spills for any other purpose Store towels in a sanitizer solution between uses Instructor Notes Even a cleaning tool can contaminate surfaces if it is not handled carefully. To keep tools separate, you could use one set of tools to clean food-contact surfaces and another set for nonfood-contact surfaces. You could also use one set of tools for cleaning and another for sanitizing. Color-coding often makes it easier for staff to know which set they should use. 11-22

22 Cleaning and Sanitizing in the Operation
Storing Cleaning Tools and Chemicals Place in a separate area away from food and food-prep areas The storage area should have: Utility sink for filling buckets and washing cleaning tools Floor drain for dumping dirty water Hooks for hanging cleaning tools Instructor Notes Storage areas should have good lighting so employees can see chemicals easily. Never clean mops, brushes, or other tools in sinks used for handwashing, food-prep, or dishwashing. When storing cleaning tools, consider the following: Air-dry towels overnight. Hang mops, brooms, and brushes on hooks to air-dry. Clean, and rinse buckets. Let them air-dry, and store them with other tools. 11-23

23 Using Foodservice Chemicals
Only purchase those approved for use in foodservice operations Store them in their original containers away from food and food-prep areas If transferring them to a new container, label it with the common name of the chemical 11-24

24 Using Foodservice Chemicals
Chemicals continued Keep MSDS for each chemical When throwing them away, follow: Instructions on the label Local regulatory requirements Instructor Notes The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has requirements for using chemicals. OSHA requires chemical manufacturers and suppliers to provide a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each hazardous chemical they sell. MSDS are often sent with the chemical shipment. You also can request them from your supplier or the manufacturer. Employees have a right to see an MSDS for any hazardous chemical they work with. Therefore, you must keep these sheets where they can be accessed. 11-25

25 Developing a Cleaning Program
To develop an effective cleaning program: Create a master cleaning schedule Train your employees to follow it Monitor the program to make sure it works 11-26

26 Developing a Cleaning Program
To create a master cleaning schedule, identify: What should be cleaned Who should clean it When it should be cleaned How it should be cleaned Instructor Notes First, evaluate your cleaning needs. Walk through the facility and look at the way cleaning is done. Then figure out how things need to be cleaned and ways to improve cleaning processes. Next, make a master cleaning schedule. Arrange the cleaning schedule in a logical way, so nothing is left out. List all cleaning jobs in one area. Or list jobs in the order they should be performed. Assign each cleaning task to a specific individual. Employees should clean and sanitize as needed. Schedule major cleaning when food will not be contaminated or service will not be affected. This is often after closing. Schedule work shifts to allow enough time. Have clear, written procedures for cleaning. Make sure they lead employees through the procedure step by step. List cleaning tools and chemicals by name. Post cleaning instructions near the item. Always follow manufacturers’ instructions when cleaning equipment. 11-27

27 Developing a Cleaning Program
When monitoring the master cleaning program: Supervise daily cleaning routines Check cleaning tasks against the master schedule every day Change the master schedule as needed Ask staff for input on the program Instructor Notes Once you have put the cleaning program in place, keep an eye on things to make sure it is working. Change the master schedule as needed for any changes in menu, procedures, or equipment. 11-29

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