Presentation on theme: "Using Disinfectants and practicing Sterilization in the Veterinary Clinic."— Presentation transcript:
Using Disinfectants and practicing Sterilization in the Veterinary Clinic
Next Generation Science / Common Core Standards Addressed! CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.9 INTEGRATE INFORMATION FROM DIVERSE SOURCES, BOTH PRIMARY AND SECONDARY, INTO A COHERENT UNDERSTANDING OF AN IDEA OR EVENT, NOTING DISCREPANCIES AMONG SOURCES. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.4 DETERMINE THE MEANING OF WORDS AND PHRASES AS THEY ARE USED IN A TEXT, INCLUDING ANALYZING HOW AN AUTHOR USES AND REFINES THE MEANING OF A KEY TERM OVER THE COURSE OF A TEXT.
Bell Work! Why are multi-drug resistant bacteria a concern? Why is it important to clean all surfaces prior to disinfection or sterilization? How may surgical instruments be cleaned? Where can an infectious organism live? What are the various methods of sterilization?
Disinfectants: A chemical compound applied to an inanimate surface to reduce/eliminate pathogenic organisms is known as a disinfectant. The act or process of destroying pathogenic organisms is known as “Disinfection”. An inanimate surface such as a table may become contaminated with fungi, bacteria and viruses. Feeding utensils, cages and floors are very easily contaminated. A disinfectant is only effective when applied to a clean surface.
Classes of Disinfectants Alkalies are compounds having a high pH (basic). Examples would be lime, soda, potash, lye. Lime is applied to the soil. A lye solution would be used to disinfect rubber products such as boots, aprons reusable gloves. Alkaline products are irritating to the skin and should not be in an area where animals will come into contact with the solution.
Classes of Disinfectants: Chlorine is an effective bleaching agent as well as one of the most effective disinfectants. A solution of household bleach at a level of.05 -.2% is a very effective disinfectant. Bleach has an offensive odor that may be irritating.
Classes of Disinfectants: Formaldehyde is very similar to chlorine. A 5 % solution is very effective in disinfecting rubber boots, feeding supplies but it does have a very strong odor.
Classes of Disinfectants: Quaternary ammonium can be diluted to a level of 1:5000 and be effectively used on hard surfaces such as tables, cages, utensils and flooring.
Handling Disinfectants Properly: When handling disinfectants always wear rubber gloves. Follow the directions to properly dilute the product that you will be using. The following guidelines will help you in using disinfectants properly; Mix the solution properly, too weak will fail to be effective, too strong is a waste of money. Do not combine chemicals, the reaction could weaken the product or cause and adverse reaction. Allow the solution to be in place for the proper amount of time. Do not store the mixed solution as it will loose its effectiveness. Organic material such a manure will reduce the solutions effectiveness, clean prior to disinfecting any area.
Sterilization of tools and equipment: Sterilization is the process of using either chemical or physical agents to kill all microorganisms whether they be viral, fungal or bacterial. Disinfectants are applied to inanimate materials, antiseptics are applied the living body, both inhibit microorganism growth. Skin can never be completely sterile, the absence of harmful microorganisms on the skin is known as “Asepsis”. Contamination occurs when there is break in sterility or asepsis. Sterilization helps to maintain “asepsis”.
Microorganisms and Infection: Maintaining a sterile operating area helps prevent wound infection which is common following surgery. A would can not be completely sterile. The goal is to minimize the number of bacteria present so that the body’s natural defense system will not be over whelmed.
Methods of Sterilization: Proper sterilization methods can prevent patient exposure to harmful microorganisms. There are a variety or sterilization methods which the clinic may utilize; Steam – Steam under pressure is the most commonly used method of sterilization. Steam temperature, exposure time and pressure are important. An Autoclave is a steam device most commonly used. Follow these guidelines; Fifteen pounds of pressure at 250 degrees for fifteen minutes Fifteen pounds of pressure at 275 degrees for ten minutes
Methods of Sterilization: Items that include plastic and rubber materials, such as power cables, endoscopes can not be subjected to the temperature and pressure of an autoclave. A gas sterilizer using “Ethylene oxide” is used for these items. Ethylene Oxide is flammable and can cause health problems. It’s use is regulated and controlled.
Methods of Sterilization: A safe method of sterilizing heat sensitive materials is by plasma sterilization. Reactive ions sterilize items in 45 minutes and 122 degrees.
Methods of Sterilization: Prepackaged sterile items such as suture packets and surgical gloves have been sterilized with ionizing radiation. Cold chemical sterilization as another method of sterilizing items that cannot be exposed to steam. The most common method is immersion in a glutaraldehyde solution. Following sterilization it is important to store surgical tools, instruments in areas that will maintain an aseptic environment until needed again.
Antiseptics: Antiseptics used for patient treatment prevent the growth of microorganisms and should not harm the patient. The ideal antiseptic would be: Non-irritating Cost effective Have a long shelf life Cleansing Active against pathogen growth Safe for the patient and surgical team
Common Disinfectants The most common disinfectants used in the veterinary clinic would include; Alcohol is an effective disinfectant for spot cleaning and small areas. Chlorine compounds as mentioned previously are effective but may also be corrosive. Iodine is effective but will stain clothing, surfaces and the skin.
Preparing Surgical Instruments! Surgical instrument must be free of all foreign materials before sterilization. Blood, feces, oil and any other residue must be removed. Contaminated tools should bed soaked in a detergent solution prior to sterilization. Avoid leaving tools in the pre-soak solution for more than an hour as non coated area will corrode/rust. Effective methods of cleaning include hand scrubbing and ultrasonic cleaning The ultrasonic cleaner will heat a solution during the process.