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Spermatophyta (seed plants)

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Presentation on theme: "Spermatophyta (seed plants)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Spermatophyta (seed plants)

2 Gymnosperm/Pinophyta
Characteristics Vascular plant characterized by seed (Spermatophyta) They don’t have real flower (they only have cone/strobilus) Seed being naked on specialized leaf or a scale of the cone Habitus: shrub, visible strolls, vine, trees Have taproots Have branches stems Have hard, needle-like or fan like leafs

3 Classification 1. Cycadinae - Have large cones
- Haven’t branches - Have large cones - Leaves like palm’s leaves - Dioceus - Example: Cycas rumphii



6 Female strobilus

7 Male strobilus

8 2. Coniferae Needle-like leaves Evergreen (always green)
Many are large trees Needle-like leaves Evergreen (always green) They are usually monocious Example: Pinus mercusii


10 Female strobilus Male strobilus

11 3. Ginkgoinae It is a tall plant
The leaf has a long stalk, is fan-shaped, and has branched veins In autumn, the leaves fall The outer cover of the seed is fleshy, while the inner cover is hard Example: Gingko biloba





16 4. Gnetinae Tropical trees, shrub or vine
Leaves look similar to flower plant Seed look somewhat like fruits Single leaves Example: Gnetum gnemon



19 Penyerbukan adalah menempelnya serbuk sari pada mikropil (liang bakal biji) → Gymnosperm
Penyerbukan adalah menempelnya serbuk sari ke kepala putik → Angiosperm Pembentukan megaspora disebut megasporogenesis Pembentukan mikrospora disebut mikrosporogenesis Pembentukan megagametofit disebut megagametogenesis

20 Megasporangium (nuselus)
Bakal biji ada Megasporangium (nuselus) ada Sel induk megaspora megasporogenesis meiosis 4 megaspora 1 megaspora fungsional membelah megagametofit megagametogenesis


22 Angiosperm/Magnoliophyta
Already have true flower The shape and composition of flower vary but has the same basic parts, that is petals, sepals, pistil and stamen Pistil consist of styles, stigma, and ovary which contains ovules Stamen consist of filaments and anthers which contain pollen grains It has thin, wide leaves, and leaf veins with varied composition Ovule or seed does not appear, because it is covered by cotyledons It is undergoes double fertilization

23 Clasifications Monocot : one cotyledon Dicots : two cotyledons

24 Dicots versus Monocots Seeds
- Two cotyledons Flower parts in fours or fives Leaves with distinct vein network Vascular cambium present Vascular bundles in ring Pollen grain with three apertures One cotyledon threes Leaves with parallel primary veins. absent Vascular bundles scattered Pollen grain with one aperture

25 Dicots

26 taproots fibrous






32 megasporogenesis 4 inti 4 inti 1 inti ke tengah 1 inti ke tengah
Bakal biji ada Megasporangium (nuselus) ada Sel induk megaspora megasporogenesis meiosis 4 megaspora 1 megaspora fungsional membelah 2 inti Ke kutub kalaza Ke kutub mikrofil Membelah 2 kali Membelah 2 kali 4 inti 4 inti Mega gameto genesis 1 inti ke tengah 1 inti ke tengah 2 inti di tengah kandung lembaga 3 inti membentuk sel 3 inti membentuk sel Sel kandung Lembaga (2n) Sel antipoda Sel telur Sel sinergid

33 Kepala sari 2 ruang sari 2 kantong sari (mikrosporangium)
ada 2 ruang sari ada 2 kantong sari (mikrosporangium) mikrosporogenesis Sel induk mikrospora meiosis 4 sel mikrospora (n) Serbuk sari Mikro gameto genesis Di buluh Serbuk sari Sel vegetatif Sel generatif 2 Sel sperma

34 Pollination Based on agent
1. anemofili → wind 2. hidrofili → water 3. zoodiofili → animals a. entomofili → insects b. ornitofili → birds c. kiropterofili → bats d. malakofili → snails 4. antrofili → humans Based on falling down pollen grains to stigma 1. autogami → alone 2. geitonogami → neighbour one plant 3. allogami → neighbour other plant (same kinds) 4. hibridogami → neighbour other plant (different kinds)



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