Chapter 11: Technology, Culture, & Everyday Life
Section 1 Focus Question: What technological improvements increased industrial productivity between 1840-1860? Big Picture: ▫Technology improves lives, agriculture, and the economy at a price.
Just Think About It How does technology improve our daily lives? How does technology improve our lives, but comes at a price (consequences)?
Agriculture 1834: Cyrus McCormick—Mechanical Reaper 1837—John Deere—Steel Tipped Plow ▫Both assisted farmers harvest “frontier” ▫Civil War Farmers could work more land ▫Downfall: purchased land & loans = debt ▫Farm land without conservation
Technology & Industry 1800—Eli Whitney began metal tool production ▫Cotton gin & interchangeable parts ▫Most parts still purchased from BR 1840-1860’s—U.S. creates “American System” (H.Clay) ▫U.S. less reliant on European goods ▫Tariffs for manufacturing (N) Encouraged entrepreneurs & inventions ▫RR & Canals for trade (W) Communications for business—telegraphs ▫No plans for agricultural south
Railroad Boom 1850’s—American rail 3x’s faster than BR Dangerous Conditions Improvements: Time zone invented + 1860—Chicago major RR shipping hub to connect East to Midwest (replaced NO) Depression of 1830’s slowed down RR creation 1850’s led to RR boom = stock exchange
Prosperity New technologies = more efficient working = lower prices ▫Small artisans could not compete ▫More wages = more buying = more demand ▫Growth of cities (more $ = expanding) ▫Women & children had opportunities to work and supplement farming family income ▫Urbanization in N & W = economic opportunites for all
Section 2 Focus Question: How did American pastimes and entertainment change between 1840-1860? Big Picture: ▫People have more educated, have more leisure time, and are forming social groups.
Dwellings Urban Setting: Brick row-homes ▫Working class homes sectioned off and popular among immigrants (Irish) and free blacks Middle class: building odd shaped houses ▫Fancy, lots of wood, & upholstered Rural poor class: poorly constructed cabins
1840-1850 Life Improves ConveniencesInconveniences Transportation & industry Coal stoves Railroads Pipes & aqueducts for fresh water in urban areas ▫NY Coal dust & carbon monoxide Fresh fruits/veggies only available to wealthy Salted pork Lack of running water Conditions ▫Body odor ▫Hogs as street cleaners ▫Poor sanitation
Diseases & Health Epidemics—rapidly spreading diseases ▫Cholera & Yellow Fever killed 1/5 of New Orleans ▫High infant mortality ▫Distrusted doctors b/c they could not cure Quarantine—separate sick from society
Diseases & Health 1840—Health Advancements ▫Nitrous Oxide (laughing gas) anesthetic ▫Sulfuric Ether in surgery ▫Lack of sterilizing equipment Health Movements ▫Water Cure 1840s (Europe) ▫1832—Sylvester Graham ▫Abstinence & utopian communities
Phrenology Orson & Lorenzo Fowler 1830s ▫“bumps” in head are connected towards personality ▫Exercising “bumps” = improved character ▫Popular for helping pick mates & employees
Section 3 Focus Question: Big Picture: 1830-1860 allowed Americans higher wages = more leisure time
Newspapers 3-4 pages, paid for by political supporters 1830s—steam driven press ▫James Gordon Bennett & penny press ▫NY Sun & NY Herald Included daily events & “stories "of crime
Theater 50 cents/seat & crowded All classes, even prostitution allowed Astor Place Riots Melodramas like Shakespeare & short performances
Minstrel Shows 1840-1850—shows depicting stereotypical blacks ▫“dancing, stumbling, poor language” ▫Whites painted faces ▫Popular shows traveled across the U.S., even the White House
P.T. Barnum From CT, journalist, & “crook” 1834—began career in “circus shows” ▫Books 80 yo black woman who claimed to be GW nurse (169 yo!) 1841—purchased the American Museum in NY ▫Typical museums had stuffed animals ▫Barnum displayed “oddities” Magicians, Tom Thumb, Mermaid, albinos
Section 4 Focus Question: How did Americans express their distinctiveness in their literature in art? Big Picture: Move from “fancy” writing/art to more accessible material for the masses/
Roots of the Renaissance Economic & PhilosophicalFiction & Poetry Transportation Revolution = ideas of fiction and unknown Prior to 1800s ▫Classicism—educated writers showing off understanding of Ancient literature. During 1800’s ▫Romanticism ▫Popular b/c more were educated and now had access to new type of literature. ▫Books taught morals with interesting and identifiable characters
AuthorsSubjectTitles CooperFocused on adventure & saving nature Last of the Mohicans EmersonNationalism (pride in nation ) Transcendentalism—God & nature is in writing Poetry with optimism Thoreau“Civil Disobedience” 1849– defending rights against unjust laws. Walden 1845 FullerFree thinking/spirit, inspired by Emerson WhitmanDemocratic thinker, against slavery Leaves of Grass Focus on Novels
Focus on Poetry and Essays AuthorsSubjectTitles HawthorneFiction 1840-1850, explored human motivation Scarlett Letter 1850—NE witch trials MelvillePessimistic writer, interested in psychology v society Moby Dick PoeShort stories & poetry, connection to human struggle The Fall of the House of Usher
Painters Hudson River School Central Park Interpreted nature & landscapes NA & Hudson River 1858 Frederick Law Olmsted & Calvert Vaux Nature inside a city