10“ilio”- refers to hip“costal” refers to ribs“epi” on or above“gastric” – refers to stomach“hypo” beneath or under“chondral”- refers to cartilage
11Superior (closer to the head) Inferior (closer to the feet)Medial (lying closer to the midline)Lateral (lying further away from the midline)Posterior (dorsal) closer to the posterior surface of the bodyAnterior (ventral) closer to the anterior surface of the bodyProximal- closer to the origin of a structureDistal- further away from the origin of a structure
12Superficial - relating to, or located near the surface Deep - relating to, or located away from the surfaceMedian- midlineIntermediate -between two other structuresExternal refers to a hollow structure -external being outsideInternal refers to a hollow structure -internal being insideCephalad- toward the head (higher in position)Caudad- toward the tail (feet- lower in position)
13Body Positions- The standard reference body position is called the “anatomical” position. The body is erect with feet together, limbs at the side, palms facing forward, thumbs pointing away from the body.
19Postures and Direction of Movement Right Lateral RecumbentThe Right lateral recumbent, or RLR, means that the patient is lying on their right side.Left Lateral RecumbentThe left lateral recumbent, or LLR, means that the patient is lying on their left side.
21Postures and Direction of Movement Fowler's PositionA person in the Fowler's position is sitting straight up or leaning slightly back. Their legs may either be straight or bent.Trendelenberg PositionA person in the Trendelenberg position is lying supine with their head slightly lower than their feet.
25Postures and Direction of Movement FlexionFlexion is to bend at a joint, or to reduce the angle.ExtensionExtension is to straighten at a joint, or to increase the angle, for example, from 90 degrees to 180 degrees.
29PLANESIn anatomy, a body plane is an imaginary flat surface that is used to define a particular area of anatomy. We usually use the umbilicus as a point of reference
30What PLANE separates the body into Anterior and Posterior parts
31FRONTAL(Coronal) separates the body into Anterior and Posterior parts
32What PLANE separates the body into Right and Left parts
33SAGITTAL(MEDIAN)separates body into Right and Left partsPara-sagittal: unequal left and right sectionsMid-sagittal: Even down the mid line
34What PLANE separates the body into Top and Bottom parts
35HORIZONTAL (transverse or Cross-Section) separates the body into Superior (top/ Upper) and Inferior (Bottom/ Lower) parts
36Regional Terms Regional Terms-refer to special areas of the body Cervical- refer to the neckPalmar- the anterior surface of the hand; the posterior surface of the hand is the dorsal surface
37Regional TermsThoracic- the portion of the body between the neck and the abdomen that is commonly referred to as the chest or thoraxDorsum- the top of the footPlantar- the sole of the foot
38Regional TermsAxilla (armpit)- the depression on the inferior surface of the attachment of the upper limb and the body trunkArm- the portion of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbowForearm- the potion of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist
39Regional TermsGroin (inguinal region)- the junction of the thigh with the abdominal wallThigh- the portion of the lower limb between the hip and kneeLeg- the portion of the lower limb between the knee and ankle
40Low BackLumbar- the portion of the back between the thorax and the pelvisSacral- the lower portion of the back, just superior to the buttocks
41Terms of Movement Protraction moving forward along a surface Retraction backward along a surface
42Terms of Movement Elevation raising a structure Depression lowering a structure
46Terms of MovementOpposition- bringing tips of fingers and thumb together as in picking something up
47Abdominopelvic area is divided into four quadrants : Right UpperRight LowerLeft UpperLeft Lower
48The abdominal cavity can also be divided into nine regions to make it easier to identify organs Right hypochondriacEpigastricLeft hypochondriacRight lumbarUmbilicalLeft lumbarRight iliac (inguinal)HypogastricLeft iliac (inguinal)
50What are Body Cavities ?Body cavities- lined with membranes and contains fluid that surrounds structures within the cavities.
51What Structures are in the Dorsal (posterior) Body Cavity?
52What Structures are in the Dorsal (posterior) Body Cavity? contains the cranial cavity (brain) and spinal cavity (spinal cord)
53What Structures are in the Ventral (anterior) Body Cavity?
54What Structures are in the Ventral (anterior) Body Cavity? thoracic cavity – consists of the pericardial (heart) and pleural (left & right lungs) cavities
55What Structures are in the Abdominopelvic Body Cavity?
56What Structures are in the Abdominopelvic Body Cavity? abdominal (stomach, spleen, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small & large intestines) and pelvic cavity, “true pelvis", bladder, rectum, female internal reproductive organs).
60Right Iliac (inguinal) Right HypochondriacBelow, rib area- right (liver, gallbladder)EpigasticAbove, stomach (stomach, pancreas, part of duodenum)Left HypochondriacBelow, rib area- left (spleen)Right lumbarFront- Lower back area- right (ascending colon)UmbilicalBelly button- middle (small intestine, transverse colon)Left LumbarLower back area-Left (descending Colon)Right Iliac (inguinal)Hip- right (cecum)HypogastricBelow, stomach (urinary bladder, rectum, initial part of the sigmoid colon)Left Iliac (inguinal)Hip- left (inferior part of descending colon)