Presentation on theme: "Test scores indicate that students who learn a foreign language have a much stronger grasp of English language skills. Tests also indicate that studying."— Presentation transcript:
Test scores indicate that students who learn a foreign language have a much stronger grasp of English language skills. Tests also indicate that studying a foreign language sharpens the mind. Classical languages may prove the most profitable foreign languages for a student to learn. Consider LATIN. Everywhere we turn, we read English words which originally came from Latin words. Over 60% of English words have Latin roots. There is so much Latin in English that learning Latin will help you to better understand English.
GREEK is also useful. While legal vocabulary is all Latin, most medical and scientific words come from Greek. Knowing Greek will give the student a head-start on the terminology of these professions. A large part of the study of these professions is the terminology. Why learn Classical Languages? For centuries, classical languages have been recognized as an essential part of a good education. The primary benefits are the mental discipline and the usefulness for all other studies
Look for Relationships between new words and words that you already know SUICIDE Fungicide Herbicide Genocide Algacide Laryngitis Appendicitis Arthritis Arthropod Pseudopod Pseudonym Cardiologist Podiatrist Erythrocyte Leukocyte Leukemia Anemia Cytology Hematology Hemophilia Hemolysis
All right class…first things first! Anterio Pos caudal cephalic
Principle of Complementarity Function always reflects structure What a structure can do depends on its specific form
Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems Atoms Molecules Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels Cardiovascular system Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1
Body Planes: Definition = imaginary lines drawn through the body to separate the body into sections
Directional Terms Table 1.1
Directional Terms Table 1.1
Body Planes Sagittal Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts Midsagittal or medial Midsagittal or medial – sagittal plane that lies on the midline Frontal or coronal Frontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior parts Transverse or horizontal Transverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior parts Oblique section Oblique section – cuts made diagonally
Body Planes Figure 1.8
Median (Midsagittal) Plane Divides body into equal right & left halves.
Frontal (Coronal) Plane Divides body into front & back portions.
Transverse Plane Divides body into upper & lower portions.
Superior (cephalic) Inferior (caudal) Towards the head Towards the feet
Transverse Plane: Horizontal plane dividing the body into a top and bottom half 1. Superior = body parts above other parts 2. Inferior = body parts below other parts
3. Cranial = body parts near the head 4. Caudal = body parts located near the sacral region of the spinal column (or near the tail bone)
Medial Moving towards the midline of the body
Lateral Moving towards the side of the body
Median Plane: Divides the body into right and left sides 1. Medial = body parts located near the middle or midline of the body 2. Lateral = body parts located away from the midline or middle of the body
Anterior (Ventral) Front part of body anterior
Posterior (Dorsal) Back part of the body posterior
Frontal Plane: Divides the body into front and back section. 1. Anterior = body parts on the front of the body 2. Posterior = body parts on the back of the body
Proximal = body parts close to the point of reference Distal = body parts away from the point of reference
Body Cavities: Spaces within the body which contain vital organs
Body Cavities Figure 1.9a
Body Cavities Figure 1.9b
Body Cavities Dorsal cavity Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions – Cranial cavity is within the skull and encases the brain – Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord Ventral cavity Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions: - Thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavities
Body Cavities Thoracic cavity Thoracic cavity is subdivided into pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity – Pleural cavities – each houses a lung – Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs – Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart
Body Cavities The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome- shaped diaphragm The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome- shaped diaphragm It is composed of two subdivisions – Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs – Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
Other Body Cavities Oral and digestive Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs Nasal Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose Orbital Orbital – house the eyes Middle ear Middle ear – contain bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations Synovial Synovial – joint cavities