3 Temperament Sorter Adopted from the Carl Jung Psychological Types (1920), and then measured by Isabel Myers (1956). The various tools are called: Jung Psychological Types Jung Psychological Types Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter Paragon Learning Style Inventory (PLSI) Paragon Learning Style Inventory (PLSI) Results based on 48 to250 questionnaire Temperaments are expressed as 4 Letters E.g. ENTP or ISFJ – 16 different combinations or “styles” E.g. ENTP or ISFJ – 16 different combinations or “styles” There are no right or wrong answers Information helps you: Understand your Temperament Understand your Temperament Understand Other’s Temperament Understand Other’s Temperament BETTER RELATIONSHIPS, TEAMWORK & RESULTS Presentation Sources: Kiersey & Bates, Please Understand Me: Hirsch and Kummerow, Introduction to TYPE in Organizations; Humantrics Web Site
4 What Element Of Group/Team Performance Are We Addressing?
5 DO NOT PRE-JUDGE PEOPLE FROM TEMPERAMENT OR PERSONALITY TESTS!!!! USE THE INFORMATION TO OPEN DIALOGUE
6 Different Drums and Different Drummers If I do not want what you want, please try not to tell me that my want is wrong. Or if I believe other than you, at least pause before you correct my view. Or if my emotion is less than yours, or more, given the same circumstances, try not to ask me to feel more strongly or weakly. Or yet if I act, or fail to act, in the manner of your design for action, let me be. I do not, for the moment at least, ask you to understand me. That will come only when you are willing to give up changing me into a copy of you. I may be your spouse, your parent, your offsping, your friend, or your colleague. If you will allow me any of my own wants, or emotions, or beliefs, or actions, then you open yourself, so that some day these ways of mine might not seem so wrong, and might finally appear to you as right -- for me. To put up with me is the first step to understanding me. Not that you embrace my ways as right for you, but that you are no longer irritated or disappointed with me for my seeming waywardness. And in understanding me you might come to prize my differences from you, and, far from seeking to change me, preserve and even nurture those differences. David Kiersey and Marilyn Bates – Please Understand Me Character & Temperament Types
7 A Word about Types: THERE REALLY IS NO “RIGHT” ANSWER TYPES DO INDICATE “PERSONALITY PREFERENCES” OR INCLINATION, OR PARTIALITY TOWARDS….. THEY OFTEN ARE CONSIDERED A “BASE” STYLE IT IS POSSIBLE TO ADAPT OR MODIFY YOUR BEHAVIOR IT IS POSSIBLE TO ADAPT OR MODIFY YOUR BEHAVIOR GOOD EXAMPLE - INTROVERTS CAN BE FORCED EXTRAVERTS GOOD EXAMPLE - INTROVERTS CAN BE FORCED EXTRAVERTS AWARENESS OF TYPE IS BETTER THAN IGNORANCE ALLOWS YOU TO UNDERSTAND HOW YOU MAY BE PERCEIVED ALLOWS YOU TO UNDERSTAND HOW YOU MAY BE PERCEIVED ALLOWS YOU TO UNDERSTAND HOW OTHERS MAY WORK BEST WITH YOU ALLOWS YOU TO UNDERSTAND HOW OTHERS MAY WORK BEST WITH YOU CAN BE USED FOR WORK, PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, LEARNING HELPFUL IN INTERVIEWING, GROUP DYNAMICS, PROBLEM SOLVING,
8 4 Dimensions of Type Indicators These are Not All or Nothing – These are Not All or Nothing – It is a Continuum It is a Continuum Scale: 100%---50%---0---50%---100% Extrovert -E | | Introvert - I Sensate – S | | iNtuitive - N Feeler – F | | Thinker - T Judger – J | | Perceiver – P In General, Your Type Will Stay the Same For Many Years In General, Your Type Will Stay the Same For Many Years Depends on What You Use for the “Environment” Depends on What You Use for the “Environment” A “Significant Emotional Event” May Change Temperament A “Significant Emotional Event” May Change Temperament Aging May Change Temperament – Stages of Life Aging May Change Temperament – Stages of Life
9 Temperament Types E/I - defines the source and direction of energy expression for a person. The extrovert has a source and direction of energy expression mainly in the external world while the introvert has a source of energy mainly in the internal world. S/N defines the method of information perception by a person. Sensing means that a person believes mainly information they receive directly from the external world. Intuition means that a person believes mainly information they receive from the internal or imaginative world. T/F - defines how the person processes information. Thinking means that a person makes a decision mainly through logic. Feeling means that, as a rule, they make a decision based on emotion. J/P - The fourth criterion defines how a person implements the information he has processed. Judging means that a person organizes all life events and acts strictly according to their plans. Perceiving means that they are inclined to improvise and seek alternatives.
10 Types Descriptors N- INTUITION Future Possibilities Future Possibilities Could Be – Theoretical Could Be – Theoretical Inspirations Inspirations Insight by insight Insight by insight Sixth Sense – Hunch Sixth Sense – Hunch Overview First Overview First Prefer Change Prefer Change S – SENSING Present Orientation Present Orientation Real and PracticalReal and Practical FactsFacts Step by StepStep by Step Use Five Senses - FactsUse Five Senses - Facts Present Details FirstPresent Details First Prefer StabilityPrefer Stability I- INTROVERT Internal/InteriorInternal/Interior Keep thoughts InKeep thoughts In Work with Ideas/ThoughtsWork with Ideas/Thoughts ConcentrationConcentration Think – Do – ThinkThink – Do – Think Quite and Private spaceQuite and Private space One project – no interruptionsOne project – no interruptions May be slower to ActMay be slower to Act E - EXTROVERT External/exteriorExternal/exterior Talk thoughts outTalk thoughts out Involved with people, thingsInvolved with people, things InteractionInteraction Do- Think – DoDo- Think – Do Variety of TasksVariety of Tasks ImpatientImpatient Likes GroupsLikes Groups PERCEIVING (PERCEPTION) ENERGY SOURCE
11 Types Descriptors DECIDING PROCESS (JUDGMENT) FEELING Value System Heart and Mercy Harmony Empathy Compassionate Works Best in Harmony Meet others Needs THINKING Logical & Systemic Head and Justice Principles Reason Firm but Fair Task Focus vs. Harmony Firm Minded and ready to critique JUDGING Decide about Information Regulate and Control Set Goals Organized “Plan the Work, Work the Plan” Focus and Finish Task Lists to Prompt Action PERCEIVING Continually Gather Information Flow and Adapt Tentative Let Life Happen Keep Options Open Flexibility Postpone Decisions Adapts to Change LIVING (ORIENTATION TO OUTSIDE WORLD)
12 Leaders & Temperament Types Rational (NT) – 5% Future/Task Thomas Jefferson (Architect)Architect Abraham Lincoln (Architect)Architect Dwight D. Eisenhower(Mastermind)Mastermind Ulysses S. Grant (Mastermind)Mastermind Douglas MacArthur (Fieldmarshal)Fieldmarshal George Marshall (Fieldmarshal)Fieldmarshal Margaret Thatcher (Fieldmarshal)Fieldmarshal Napoleon Bonaparte (Fieldmarshal)Fieldmarshal Bill Gates (Fieldmarshal)Fieldmarshal Buckminster Fuller (Inventor)Inventor Steve Wozniak (Architect)Architect George Soros (Architect)Architect Idealist (NF) – 10% Future/People Mohandas GandhiMohandas Gandhi (Counselor)Counselor Eleanor RooseveltEleanor Roosevelt(Counselor)Counselor Vladimir Lenin (Teacher)Teacher Mikhail GorbachevMikhail Gorbachev (Teacher)Teacher Alexander Hamilton (Champion)Champion Molly Brown "The Unsinkable" (Champion)Champion Princess DianaPrincess Diana (Healer)Healer Albert Schweitzer(Healer)Healer Abraham Maslow Isabel Myers (Healer)Healer Carl Jung (Counselor)Counselor Artisan (SP) – 40% Present/Task Franklin D. Roosevelt (Promoter)Promoter Theodore Roosevelt (Promoter)Promoter Winston Churchill (Promoter)Promoter George S. Patton (Promoter)Promoter Erwin Rommel (Crafter)Crafter Charles XII of Sweden (Crafter)Crafter Nikita Khrushchev (Performer)Performer Boris Yeltzin John Paul Getty (Promoter)Promoter Donald Trump (Promoter)Promoter Charles Lindbergh (Crafter)Crafter Guardian (SJ) – 45% Present /Task/People President George Washington (ESFJ)George Washington President Harry S. TrumanPresident Harry S. Truman (ISTJ) President Jimmy Carter President George HW Bush (ISFJ) President Leonid Brezhnev (ESFJ) General Colin Powell (ESTJ) General Omar Bradley Warren Buffet (ISTJ) Sam Walton (ESFJ) Ray Kroc (ESFJ) John D. Rockefeller (ISTJ) J C Penny & F W Woolworth William K Kellogg Andrew Mellon & J. P. Morgan
13 Instructor’s Scores – 2 Environments As an Instructor: ENFP (Diplomatic Integration) 100%---50%---0---50%---100% 100%---50%---0---50%---100% Extrovert -E | | Introvert – I Sensate – S | | iNtuitive - N Feeler – F | | Thinker - T Judger – J | | Perceiver – P As a Manager: ENTP (Strategic Analysis) 100%---50%---0---50%---100% 100%---50%---0---50%---100% Extrovert -E | | Introvert - I Sensate – S | | iNtuitive - N Feeler – F | | Thinker - T Judger – J | | Perceiver – P Why Different? : Extrovert Higher with Instructing – Speaking and Doing Extrovert Higher with Instructing – Speaking and Doing Intuitive Higher with Manager – More Future Role Intuitive Higher with Manager – More Future Role *Instructor – Meets other Needs; Manager – Firm but Fair, Task Focus *Instructor – Meets other Needs; Manager – Firm but Fair, Task Focus *Perceiver stronger in Manager – More Flexibility Required *Perceiver stronger in Manager – More Flexibility Required
14 Quadrant Combinations – 3 Methods First 2 Characters: Middle 2 Characters: Four Temperaments (what you got from website): IS – Thoughtful Realist ES – Action Oriented Realist IN – Thoughtful Innovator EN – Action Oriented Innovator ST – Facts & Process NF – Possible & Empowerment SF – Facts & People NT – Possible & Mastery NT – Rationalist (middle 2) – Strategic Planner NF – Idealist (middle 2) – Diplomatic Integration SP – Artisans (2nd and 4th) – Tactical Variation SJ – Guardians (2nd and 4th) – Logistics
16 Four Temperament Quadrants Rational (NT) – 5% Pop. Strategic Analysis (Task) Pros: Visionary, Logical, Expertise, Understand Complex, Task Oriented, Organized Trouble: Too competitive, abstract, quick to decide, offend others Needs: Challenge their imagination Idealist (NF) – 10% Pop. Diplomatic Integration (People) Pros: Energizer, Persuasive, Catalyst, Inclusive, People Oriented, “E” likes Groups Trouble: Too Idealistic, overlook details, overextend self Needs: Congruence with who they are. Artisan (SP) – 40% Pop. Tactical Variation (Task) Pros: Common Sense, Resourceful, Negotiator, Factual, Efficient Trouble: Too expedient, short term, can be blunt, risky Needs: Freedom to do things as they see fit Guardian (SJ) – 45% Pop. Logistics (Task/People) Pros: Thorough, Logical, Detail, Sense of Duty, Supporting Trouble: Bureaucratic, may avoid conflict, short range, may overlook interpersonal needs Needs: Knowledge of the Goal and Steps to get there.
18 Exercise 1 In your Class Project Teams In your Class Project Teams Identify each person’s Temperament Type in your Group Identify each person’s Temperament Type in your Group Create an “Inventory” of the Group and determine: Create an “Inventory” of the Group and determine: What Temperament Types are present in your group and which are most prevalent? What Temperament Types are present in your group and which are most prevalent? What Temperament Types are missing or have the least members? Identify your group’s strengths and risks based on understanding your Temperament Type “Pros”, “Trouble” and “Needs” Identify your group’s strengths and risks based on understanding your Temperament Type “Pros”, “Trouble” and “Needs” Identify how you will manage any risks: Identify how you will manage any risks: Missing Skills, Attributes or Strengths? Team Cohesiveness Prepare a 2 Minute Presentation for the Class Prepare a 2 Minute Presentation for the Class
19 Exercise 2 Groups Working Together: Assemble in Type Groups – See Instructor Assemble in Type Groups – See Instructor Identify How Your Type will Work with Other Type Identify How Your Type will Work with Other Type Situation: Forming a Team to Work on Group Mini Project to Study The Ethical Issues Associated with the Enron Problems: 1) Prepare a Kick Off Speech that will Motivate the other Type to be enthusiastic about the Project. 2 minute Kick Off 2) Identify the key things you must do to keep the other Type of People Motivated 3) Identify the key concerns you would have in working with the other Type of People 4) Identify what you hope they will tell you they will be concentrating on to work better with your Type. 5) Identify what you don’t have to worry about.
20 Example – NT to Artisan 1. Hello Artesians: Purpose: Investigating Enron Situation Purpose: Investigating Enron Situation Make a great team - Solid Information Combined with Understanding Complex and Organize Thoughts Lots of Research – ideas on how to do it?(resourcefulness) Make sure we get the right story? (factual) How should we do this most effectively – divide up research? Who should write the report vs. do research (NT’s probably should) 2.We Must to keep them interested: Keep on Task, Willing to adapt to situation, Not waste time with theoretical discussions. 3.Key Concerns – 1. We should write the report – organization and logical 2. Make sure conclusions include both short and long term issues 3. How do we make sure they don’t underperform and not deliver their tasks by waiting too late or short cutting their tasks (e.g. research)? 4.I hope they…. 1. (Team NT gets to answer this) 5.We won’t have to worry about…being blunt with each other
21 What Element Of Group/Team Performance Are We Addressing? Group Processes: Roles – Task or Maintenance (but not Self Interest) Norms – Behaviors by Individuals Cohesiveness – Homogeneity, Participation, Competition, Success Decision Making – How are Decisions Made? Conflict Resolution – How are Conflicts Resolved?
22 Where Do You Go From Here? Take this Back to your Project Teams and discuss it. How will the team of different Types work together? How will the team of different Types work together? What Strengths are you missing that you need to overcome? What Strengths are you missing that you need to overcome? Get a Customized Report – www.advisorteam.com/temperament_sorter www.advisorteam.com/temperament_sorter www.advisorteam.com/temperament_sorter Options for Free or Various Reports Options for Free or Various Reports Other Websites – “Google”: Keirsey Temperament Sorter Other Websites – “Google”: Keirsey Temperament Sorter Build Your Own Plan What of My Types Has Hindered My Success What of My Types Has Hindered My Success What modifications/Adaptations Do I need to Make in Working with Others? What modifications/Adaptations Do I need to Make in Working with Others? Observe your other groups – ask yourself What “Type” am I dealing with What “Type” am I dealing with Do I Need to change my approach to achieve success? Do I Need to change my approach to achieve success?
23 Next Tuesday (1/24) Continue Temperament Type Discussion Cannondale Video Case (link on website) Mini-Project Subjects Course Feedback Survey (Web Q)
25 IntroversionExtroversion Withdrawing to peace Energy from... Immersion into action Watching first Learn from... Doing first Wait to be approached Interaction Initiate the interaction Series of 1 on 1’s Socializing In groups Externally reserved Expression Shows what’s going on Inside/Autonomous Thinking Outside/Accommodating SensateIntuitive Practical reality World Possibilities Respect for what is Reality Imagine what could be Present Time orientation Future Experience Effectiveness comes from... Ingenuity What works Data for tasks What makes sense DIFFERENCES IN TYPES
26 FeelingThinking People Basic Value Rational Wholes/Similarities Looking at things Patterns/Differences Resist it Approach to Conflict Invigorated by it Warm and readable Affect Cool and reserved Praise and encouragement Motivation Achievement and attaining the goal JudgingPerceiving Decisive Decision Style Open-minded Convergent Approach to information Divergent Linear/Sequential Cognitive Pattern Random/Circular Clock time is valid Time General/Flexible Completion Comfort in tasks Getting Started DIFFERENCES IN TYPES
27 Rational NTs RATIONAL NTs, being ABSTRACT in communicating and UTILITARIAN (ends justify the means) in implementing goals, can become highly skilled in STRATEGIC ANALYSIS. Thus their most practiced and developed intelligent operations tend to be marshalling and planning (NTJ organizing), or inventing and configuring (NTP engineering). And they would if they could be wizards in one of these forms of rational operation. They are proud of themselves in the degree they are competent in action, respect themselves in the degree they are autonomous, and feel confident of themselves in the degree they are strong willed. Ever in search of knowledge, this is the "Knowledge Seeking Personality" -- trusting in reason and hungering for achievement. They are usually pragmatic about the present, skeptical about the future, solipsistic about the past, and their preferred time and place are the interval and the intersection. Educationally they go for the sciences, avocationally for technology, and vocationally for systems work.
28 Idealist NFs IDEALIST NFs, being ABSTRACT in communicating and COOPERATIVE in implementing goals, can become highly skilled in DIPLOMATIC INTEGRATION. Thus their most practiced and developed intelligent operations are usually teaching and counseling (NFJ mentoring), or conferring and tutoring (NFP advocating). And they would if they could be sages in one of these forms of social development. The Idealist temperament have an instinct for interpersonal integration, learn ethics with ever increasing zeal, sometimes become diplomatic leaders, and often speak interpretively and metaphorically of the abstract world of their imagination. They are proud of themselves in the degree they are empathic in action, respect themselves in the degree they are benevolent, and feel confident of themselves in the degree they are authentic. Idealist types search for their unique identity, hunger for deep and meaningful relationships, wish for a little romance each day, trust their intuitive feelings implicitly, aspire for profundity. This is the "Identity Seeking Personality" -- credulous about the future, mystical about the past, and their preferred time and place are the future and the pathway. Educationally they go for the humanities, avocationally for ethics, and vocationally for personnel work.
29 Artisan SPs ARTISAN SPs, being CONCRETE in communicating and UTILITARIAN (ends justify the means) in implementing goals, can become highly skilled in TACTICAL VARIATION. Thus their most practiced and developed intelligent operations are usually promoting and operating (SPT expediting), or displaying and composing (SPF improvizing). And they would if they could be virtuosos of one of these forms artistic operation. Artisans are proud of themselves in the degree they are graceful in action, respect themselves in the degree they are daring, and feel confident of themselves in the degree they are adaptable. This is the "Sensation Seeking Personality" -- trusting in spontaniety and hungering for impact on others. They are usually hedonic about the present, optimistic about the future, cynical about the past, and their preferred time and place is the here and now. Educationally they go for arts and crafts, avocationally for techniques, and vocationally for operations work.
30 Guardian SJs GUARDIAN SJs, being CONCRETE in communicating and COOPERATIVE in implementing goals, can become highly skilled in LOGISTICS. Thus their most practiced and developed intelligent operations are often supervising and inspecting (SJT adminstering), or supplying and protecting (SJF conserving). And they would if they could be magistrates watching over these forms of social facilitation. They are proud of themselves in the degree they are reliable in action, respect themselves in the degree they do good deeds, and feel confident of themselves in the degree they are respectable. In search of security as they are the "Security Seeking Personality" -- trusting in legitimacy and hungering for membership. They are usually stoical about the present, pessimistic about the future, fatalistic about the past, and their preferred time and place is the past and the gateway. Educationally they go for commerce, avocationally for regulations, and vocationally for materiel work.