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Attitudes, Values, Ethics, and Culture: The Manager as a Person

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Presentation on theme: "Attitudes, Values, Ethics, and Culture: The Manager as a Person"— Presentation transcript:

1 Attitudes, Values, Ethics, and Culture: The Manager as a Person
3 Chapter Attitudes, Values, Ethics, and Culture: The Manager as a Person

2 Learning Objectives After studying the chapter, you should be able to:
Describe the various personality traits that affect how people think, feel, and behave. Explain what values, attitudes, and moods and emotions are and describe their impact our actions. Explain what ethics and social responsibility is and why managers should strive make ethical decisions that support society. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

3 Personality Traits Personality Traits
Enduring tendencies to feel, think, and act in certain ways Characteristics that influence how people think, feel and behave on and off the job The personalities of managers account for the different approaches that managers adopt to management. Traits are viewed as a continuum (from high to low) along which individuals fall. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

4 The Big Five Personality Traits
Extroversion The tendency to experience positive emotions and moods and to feel good about oneself and the rest of the world Managers high on this trait are sociable and friendly. Negative Affectivity The tendency to experience negative emotions and moods, to feel distressed, and to be critical of oneself and others Managers high on this trait are often critical and feel angry with others and themselves. Agreeableness The tendency to get along well with other people Managers high on this trait are likable, and care about others. Conscientiousness The tendency to be careful, scrupulous, and persevering Openness to Experience The tendency to be original, have broad interests, to be open to a wide range of stimuli, be daring, and take risks Source: © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. Figure 3.1

5 Keirsey’s 4 Temperaments
Extroversion (E) Introversion (I) Sensing (S) Intuitive (N) Feeling (F) Thinking (T) Based on the Meyers Briggs Personality Test. Simplified version with same results. This profile actually identifies temperament. Temperament is defined as a lifelong predisposition towards certain identifiable patterns of behavior. Temperament in interaction with circumstances give rise to character. Theodore Roosevelt and William McKinley comparison story. Your profile is based on the area you scored highest. Profile explanations are based on perfect scores. If your results fall in the middle or only slightly higher your personality profile may reflect a combination of styles. This is an awareness exercise to help you see how different people are and interactions can become complicated when multiple personality types must work together. Judging (J) Perceiving (P) © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

6 Different Drummers If I do not want what you want, please try not to tell me that my want is wrong. Or if I believe other than you, at least pause before you correct my view. Of it my emotion is less than yours, or more, given the same circumstances, try not to ask me to feel more strongly or weakly. Or yet if I act, or fail to act, in the manner of your design for action, let me be. I do not, for the moment at least, ask you to understand me. That will come only when you are willing to give up changing me into a copy of you. I may be your spouse, your parent, your offspring, your friend, or your colleague. If you will allow me any of my own wants, or emotions, or beliefs, or actions, then you open yourself, so that some day these ways of mine might not seem so wrong, and might finally appear to you as right -- for me. To put up with me is the first step to understanding me. Not that you embrace my ways as right, but that you are no longer irritated or disappointed with me for my seeming waywardness. And in understanding me you might come to prize my differences from you, and, far from seeking to change me, preserve and even nurture those differences.

7 Other Personality Traits…
Internal Locus of Control External Locus of Control Self-Esteem Need for Achievement Need for Affiliation Need for Power The tendency to locate responsibility for one’s own fate within oneself People believe they are responsible for their fate and see their actions as important to achieving goals. Self-Esteem The degree to which people feel good about themselves and their abilities High self-esteem causes a person to feel competent, and capable. Persons with low self-esteem have poor opinions of themselves and their abilities. Need for Achievement The extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence The tendency to locate responsibility for one’s fate within outside forces and to believe that one’s own behavior has little impact on outcomes People believe external forces decide their fate and their actions make little difference. Need for Affiliation The extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having other people get along Need for Power The extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

8 So What? Understanding your personality or temperament will help guide your life decisions: relationships careers/jobs work habits Understanding and accepting differences will make you a better person, leader, parent, spouse,and manager. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

9 Values, Attitudes, and Moods and Emotions
Describe what managers try to achieve through work and how they think they should behave Terminal Instrumental © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

10 Terminal and Instrumental Values
Terminal Values A personal conviction about life-long goals A sense of accomplishment, equality, and self-respect. Instrumental Values A personal conviction about desired modes of conduct or ways of behaving Being hard-working, broadminded, capable. Value System The terminal and instrumental values that are the guiding principles in an individual’s life. Source: Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: Free Press, 1973). Figure 3.3 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

11 Attitudes & Moods Attitudes: collection of feelings about something.
Job Satisfaction Organizational Commitment Moods: encompass how a manager feels while managing. Satisfaction tends to rise as manager moves up in the organization. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: actions not required of managers but Job Satisfaction: feelings about a worker’s job. Organizational Commitment: beliefs held by people toward the organization as a whole. Committed managers are loyal and proud of the firm. Commitment can differ around the world which help advance the firm. Managers with high satisfaction perform these “extra mile” tasks. Managers need to realize how they feel affects how they treat others and how others respond to them. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

12 Emotional Intelligence
The ability to understand and manage one’s own moods and emotions and the moods and emotions of other people. Assists managers in coping with their own emotions. Helps managers carry out their interpersonal roles of figurehead, leader, and liaison. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

13 Ethics and Stakeholders
Organizational Stakeholders Shareholders Employees Customers Suppliers Government Community And others who have an interest, claim, or stake in an organization and in what it does Each group of stakeholders wants a different outcome and managers must work to satisfy as many as possible. Managers have the responsibility to decide which goals an organization should pursue to most benefit stakeholders—decisions that benefit some stakeholder groups at the expense of others. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

14 Ethics Decision Models
Moral principles or beliefs about what is right or wrong Utilitarian Model Moral Rights Model Justice Model Ethics guide managers in their dealings with stakeholders and others when the best course of action is unclear. Managers often experience an ethical dilemma in choosing between the conflicting interests of stakeholders. Utilitarian Model An ethical decision is one that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Moral Rights Model An ethical decision is one that best maintains and protects the fundamental rights and privileges of the people affected by it. Justice Model An ethical decision is one that distributes benefits and harms among stakeholders in a fair, equitable, or impartial way. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

15 Ethics Test If a manager makes a decision falling within usual standards, is willing to personally communicate the decision to stakeholders, and believes friends [family] would approve, then it is likely an ethical decision. If the answer to this is yes, you have an ethical decision. If this is not likely to happen you most likely have an unethical decision. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

16 Sources of An Organization’s Code of Ethics
Societal Ethics Standards that govern how members of a society are to deal with each other on ethical issues Based on values and standards found in society’s legal rules, norm, and mores Codified in the form of laws and societal customs Ethical norms dictate how people should behave. Societal ethics vary among societies. Strong beliefs in one country may differ elsewhere. Payment of bribes, an illegal act in the U. S., is an accepted business practice in many countries. Professional ethics Standards that govern how members of a profession are to make decision when the way they should behave is not clear-cut Physicians and lawyers have professional associations that enforce these. Individual ethics Personal standards that govern how individuals are to interact with other people Influenced by family, upbringing in general, and life experiences © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. Figure 3.7

17 Why Behave Ethically? To avoid harming others.
Managers are responsible for protecting and nurturing resources in their charge. Unethical managers run the risk for loss of reputation. This is a valuable asset to any manager! Reputation is critical to long term management success. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

18 Social Responsibility
A manager’s duty or obligation make decisions that promote the welfare and well-being of stakeholders and society as a whole. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

19 Approaches to Social Responsibility
Obstructionist response Managers choose not to be socially responsible. They behave illegally and unethically; hiding and covering up problems. Defensive response Managers stay within the law but make no attempt to exercise additional social responsibility. Managers place shareholder interests above those of all other stakeholders. Managers argue that society should pass laws and create rules if change is needed. Accommodative response Managers acknowledge the need to support social responsibility and try to balance the interests of different stakeholders against one another. Proactive response Managers actively embrace the need to behave in socially responsible ways and go out of their way to learn about needs of different stakeholders. They are willing to utilize organizational resources for both stockholders and stakeholders. Source: © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. Figure 3.8

20 Conclusion Our interpersonal interactions with people are greatly effected by our personalities, values, attitudes and moods. Each person is different; we must be aware of differences and manage accordingly. All managers and organizations have an obligation to behave ethically and with social responsibility. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

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