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Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Sherfield and Moody Cornerstones Topic: Learn
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 What is Learning? A cognitive mental action Can be conscious and/or unconscious Can be formal or informal
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Historical Learning Theories Socratic method (Socrates): – Learning by dialogue Dialectic method (Plato): – Learning by asking questions Active learning (Lao-Tse): – Experience-based learning Case study (Confucius): – Storytelling and discussion
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 Historical Learning Theories (cont’d.) Sensory learning (Locke): – Our five senses fill our “blank slate” Learning styles (Rousseau): – Learning should follow our basic instincts, feelings Behaviorism (Watson): – Learning through conditioned response Holistic learning (Piaget): – Learning through experiencing a variety of stimuli Mastery learning (Bloom): – Transforming information to new, complex ideas
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 The Learning Process Motivation to learn the material Understanding the material Internalize the material Apply the material Evaluate the material Use the material to grow and change
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 Three Ways to Determine How You Learn What are your dominant intelligences? What is your learning style? What is your personality type?
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 Theory of Multiple Intelligences Professor Howard Gardner (1983) Eight intelligences everyone possesses Not equal to traditional I.Q. measurement Dominant intelligences are more well- developed Other intelligences less-developed
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Eight Areas of Intelligence Visual/spatial – “picture smart” Verbal/linguistic – “word smart” Musical/rhythmic – “music smart” Logical/mathematical – “number smart” Body/kinesthetic – “body smart” Interpersonal – “people smart” Intrapersonal – “self smart” Naturalistic – “environment smart”
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 9 Learning Styles Theory How do you best process information? Three styles: Visual – “eye smart” Auditory – “ear smart” Tactile/kinestetic – “action smart”
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 Keeping it all Straight Learning style = how you best process information Learning strategy = how you choose to study Dominant intelligence = well-developed aspect of intelligence Personality type = your preferences and patterns
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 11 Personality Typing Carl Jung (1921) and Isabell Briggs-Myers and Kathernine Briggs (1942) Human behavior is not random and patterns are caused by individual motivation and energies Four major categories of personality
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 12 How Do You Draw Your Energy? Extroverts (E)– draw strength others and prefer to live in the outside world. Outgoing and love interaction and being the center of attention Introverts (I) – draw strength from their inner world. Need alone time to energize. Often quiet and reflective. Make decisions by themselves and are private
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 How Do You Best Learn Information? Sensers (S) – gather information through five senses. Like concrete facts and details. Have common sense. Focused on “what is” Intuitives (N) – not as detail-oriented. Rely on gut feelings. Innovative and see possibilities. Focused on “what could be”
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 14 How Do You Make Decisions? Thinkers (T) – logical people. Analytical and do not make decisions based on emotion. Can sometimes be seen as insensitive and lacking compassion. Make decisions with head v. heart Feelers (F) – like harmony and consider others’ opinions and feelings. Usually tactful and warm. Make decisions with heart v. head
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 15 How Do You Prefer to Live Your Life? Judgers (J) – orderly people who prefer structure in their lives. Good at setting goals and sticking to them. Work before play. Perceivers (P) – less structured and more spontaneous. Overextend themselves and do not like timelines. Play before work.
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 16 Sixteen Personality Types ISTJ – “the dutiful” ISFJ – “the nurturer” INFJ – “the protector” INTJ – “the scientist” ISTP – “the mechanic” ISFP – “the artist” INFP – “the idealist” INTP – “the thinker” ESTP – “the thinker” ESFP – “the performer” ENFP – “The inspirer” ENTP – “the visionary” ESTJ – “the guardian” ESFJ – “the caregiver” ENFJ – “the giver” ENTJ – “the executive”
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 17 Topic Reflections Get involved in a variety of learning and social situations Use your less dominant areas in order to strengthen them Read more about personality typing and learning styles Surround yourself with others who learn differently than you Try new ways of learning and studying Remember that inventories do not measure your worth as an individual or student
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