2What is Learning? A cognitive mental action Can be conscious and/or unconsciousCan be formal or informal
3Historical Learning Theories Socratic method (Socrates):Learning by dialogueDialectic method (Plato):Learning by asking questionsActive learning (Lao-Tse):Experience-based learningCase study (Confucius):Storytelling and discussion
4Historical Learning Theories (cont’d.) Sensory learning (Locke):Our five senses fill our “blank slate”Learning styles (Rousseau):Learning should follow our basic instincts, feelingsBehaviorism (Watson):Learning through conditioned responseHolistic learning (Piaget):Learning through experiencing a variety of stimuliMastery learning (Bloom):Transforming information to new, complex ideas
5The Learning Process Motivation to learn the material Understanding the materialInternalize the materialApply the materialEvaluate the materialUse the material to grow and change
6Three Ways to Determine How You Learn What are your dominant intelligences?What is your learning style?What is your personality type?
7Theory of Multiple Intelligences Professor Howard Gardner (1983)Eight intelligences everyone possessesNot equal to traditional I.Q. measurementDominant intelligences are more well-developedOther intelligences less-developed
9Learning Styles Theory How do you best process information?Three styles:Visual – “eye smart”Auditory – “ear smart”Tactile/kinestetic – “action smart”
10Keeping it all Straight Learning style = how you best process informationLearning strategy = how you choose to studyDominant intelligence = well-developed aspect of intelligencePersonality type = your preferences and patterns
11Personality TypingCarl Jung (1921) and Isabell Briggs-Myers and Kathernine Briggs (1942)Human behavior is not random and patterns are caused by individual motivation and energiesFour major categories of personality
12How Do You Draw Your Energy? Extroverts (E)– draw strength others and prefer to live in the outside world. Outgoing and love interaction and being the center of attentionIntroverts (I) – draw strength from their inner world. Need alone time to energize. Often quiet and reflective. Make decisions by themselves and are private
13How Do You Best Learn Information? Sensers (S) – gather information through five senses. Like concrete facts and details. Have common sense. Focused on “what is”Intuitives (N) – not as detail-oriented. Rely on gut feelings. Innovative and see possibilities. Focused on “what could be”
14How Do You Make Decisions? Thinkers (T) – logical people. Analytical and do not make decisions based on emotion. Can sometimes be seen as insensitive and lacking compassion. Make decisions with head v. heartFeelers (F) – like harmony and consider others’ opinions and feelings. Usually tactful and warm. Make decisions with heart v. head
15How Do You Prefer to Live Your Life? Judgers (J) – orderly people who prefer structure in their lives. Good at setting goals and sticking to them. Work before play.Perceivers (P) – less structured and more spontaneous. Overextend themselves and do not like timelines. Play before work.
16Sixteen Personality Types ISTJ – “the dutiful”ISFJ – “the nurturer”INFJ – “the protector”INTJ – “the scientist”ISTP – “the mechanic”ISFP – “the artist”INFP – “the idealist”INTP – “the thinker”ESTP – “the thinker”ESFP – “the performer”ENFP – “The inspirer”ENTP – “the visionary”ESTJ – “the guardian”ESFJ – “the caregiver”ENFJ – “the giver”ENTJ – “the executive”
17Topic ReflectionsGet involved in a variety of learning and social situationsUse your less dominant areas in order to strengthen themRead more about personality typing and learning stylesSurround yourself with others who learn differently than youTry new ways of learning and studyingRemember that inventories do not measure your worth as an individual or student