1 Chapter 18– Emerging Adulthood: Cognitive Development The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen BergerChapter 18– Emerging Adulthood:Cognitive DevelopmentAdd Postformal Thought from 7e,PowerPoint Slides developed byMartin Wolfger and Michael JamesIvy Tech Community College-BloomingtonReviewed by Raquel HenryLone Star College, Kingwood
2 Postformal ThoughtA proposed stage of cognitive development, after Piaget’s 4 stagesExtends adolescent thinking by being more practical, flexible, and dialecticalCharacterized by “problem finding”Person is more open with ideas and less concerned with absolute right and wrong
3 Time ManagementA struggle for emerging adults but usually mastered as cognition maturesDelay discountingTendency to undervalue, or ignore, future consequences and rewards in favor of immediate gratificationi.e. going to the beach instead of studying for a final
4 Really a Stage?Piaget’s theory of child cognition and post-formal thought stage is controversialPrefrontal cortex is not mature until one’s early 20’sMost cultures describe adult thought as qualitatively different from adolescent thought
5 Really a Stage? Informed by Experience Labouvie-Vief investigated age differences in self-descriptions.These were categorized as:protective (high in self-involvement, low in self-doubt)dysregulated (fragmented, overwhelmed by emotions or problems)complex (valuing openness and independence above all)integrated (able to regulate emotions and logic)
7 Combining Subjective and Objective Thought Subjective thoughtThinking that is based on personal qualities of the individual thinker (i.e. experiences, culture, goals)Objective thoughtThinking that is not based on thinker’s personal qualities but instead based valid facts and numbers
8 Cognitive Flexibility Helps people deal with unforeseen eventsHelps avoid retreating into emotions or intellectA hallmark of postformal cognitionA characteristic more common in emerging adults than younger peopleListening to others and considering diverse opinions
9 Countering Stereotypes Stereotype ThreatThe possibility that one’s appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another’s oversimplified, prejudiced attitudes.The mere possibility of being negatively stereotyped arouses anxiety that can disrupt cognition and distort emotional regulation.Makes people of all ages doubt their ability, which reduces learning if their anxiety interferes with cognition.
10 Dialectical Thought The most advanced cognitive process Ability to consider a thesis and its antithesis and arrive at a synthesisBeing able to see the pros and cons, advantages and disadvantages, possibilities and limitationsDialectical thinking is rare in adolescents, more often found in middle-aged people
11 Dialectical Thought Thesis Antithesis Synthesis A statement of belief A statement of belief that opposes the thesisSynthesisA new idea that integrates the thesis and its antithesis, thus representing a new and more comprehensive level of truth
12 Morals and ReligionAdult responsibilities, experiences, and education affect moral reasoning and religious beliefs.Maturation of values appears first in emerging adulthoodMoral decisions are least likely in early adolescence
13 Which Era? What Place?Culture determines whether or not a particular issue is a moral one.The power of culture makes it difficult to assess whether adult morality changes with age because changing opinions can be judged as improvements or declines.The process of moral thinking improves with age.
15 Dilemmas for Emerging Adults Gender differencesMorality of careThe tendency of females to be reluctant to judge right and wrong in absolute terms due to socializationMorality of justiceThe tendency of males to emphasize justice over compassion and judging right and wrong in absolute terms
16 Dilemmas for Emerging Adults Measuring Moral GrowthDefining Issues Test (DIT)A way to measure moral thinking by having the test takers rank possible solutions to moral dilemmasDeveloped by James Rest
17 Stages of Faith1: Intuitive-projective, ages 3-7 2: Mythic-literal, ages 7-11, some adults 3: Synthetic-conventional, conformist 4: Individual-reflective, active commitment 5: Conjunctive: postformal way of thinking, rarely achieved before middle-age 6: Universalizing: transforming experience may cause this, rarely achieved
18 Cognitive Growth and Higher Education The Effects of CollegeMost contemporary students attend college primarily to secure their vocational and financial future.College also correlates with better health - graduates everywhere smoke less, eat better, exercise more, and live longer.There is no doubt that tertiary education improves verbal and quantitative abilities, knowledge of specific subject areas, skills in various professions, reasoning, and reflection.
19 Changes in the College Context Changes in the StudentsNo longer for elite fewRates of college grads worldwide is upIn most developed nations, there are more females than males in collegeFewer students major in liberal arts, more in business and professions (e.g. law and medicine)
22 Changes in the College Context Changes in InstitutionsThe U.S. has twice as many colleges as it did 50 years ago.More career programsHire more part time faculty, more women and minoritiesIncome most important reason on whether an emerging adult will go to college or not
23 Evaluating the Changes Diversity and enrollmentThe increased diversity of the student body is more likely to encourage than discourage learning.Graduates and dropoutsA correlation between college ed. and later income is stronger now than before due to the loss of unskilled jobs.