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Adolescence: Cognitive Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood and.

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Presentation on theme: "Adolescence: Cognitive Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adolescence: Cognitive Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 15 Seventh Edition

2 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Make it Real: Adolescent Thought Think of an argument you had as a teenager, or a time when you heard a teenager argue. Contrast the argument styles of 2 teenagers versus 2 adults. (e.g., about politics).

3 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Adolescent Thought Adolescents often combine ego, logic, and emotion in their thinking, in ways that differ from adults. These processes involve egocentrism, formal operational, and postformal thought.

4 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Adolescent Egocentrism A tendency to focus on oneself:  Personal Fable (“I’m so unique.”)  Invincibility Fable (“Nothing bad can happen.”)  Imaginary audience (“Everyone is watching.”)

5 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Make it Real: Adolescent Egocentrism Think of real life examples of the invincibility fable, personal fable, and imaginary audience. SYBIL SHACKMAN / MONKMEYER

6 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Middle School: A Low Point The first year of middle school (starting in grade 5, 6, or 7) is often a “low ebb” of learning. Students are dealing with a variety of issues (see next slide).

7 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Issues in Middle School Some issues kids must deal with during middle school:  Puberty  Relational bullying  Greater competition ─ extracurricular activities  Short class periods that prevent in-depth discussion

8 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Designing a School Some ideas to help middle schoolers:  Longer class periods  Teachers rotate classes (vs. students)  Use of “pods”–small groups of students

9 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Compared to Young Kids, Adolescents: are better arguers have a larger knowledge base use better memory strategies are faster thinkers PHOTODISC

10 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Piaget’s Highest Stage Adolescents are in Piaget’s 4th stage, formal operational thought, characterized by:  logical thought  hypothetical thought  abstract thought  deductive reasoning

11 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Deductive Reasoning This begins with an idea or premise and then uses logic to draw specific conclusions (“top-down” thinking).  Example: If something is a duck, it will waddle and quack.

12 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Inductive Reasoning Reasoning from one or more specific experiences to a general conclusion (“bottom-up” thinking).  Example: This is a duck. It waddles and quacks. This other creature does too–so it must also be a duck!

13 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Formal Operational Tasks The Balance Scale Problem Mixing Chemicals

14 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Formal Operational Thought Adolescents can think about possibilities and about the future. They often question adult values, practices. They love to think and discuss life, and are often idealists.

15 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Two Types of Thought Analytic (formal operational) Intuitive: thoughts spring from feelings, memories  Is QUICK, POWERFUL, but may be illogical!  Example: assume an athlete must be popular

16 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Cognitive Economy Adolescents learn to use the most efficient and effective type of thought, depending on the situation. Example: They use analytic in science class, but intuitive for personal issues.

17 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Learning in High School High schools emphasize the use of formal operational thought (vs. intuitive). Teachers are specialists in their field. The curriculum is rigorous, with math and science emphasized most.

18 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 High-Stakes Testing These tests determine whether a student is promoted in school. They are not without controversy:  Are there higher drop out rates as a result?  Do they increase ethnic, economic, and sexual inequality?  Do they decrease student motivation?

19 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Student Motivation Many adolescents express boredom and unhappiness with school. 38% of high school teachers say “student apathy” is their most serious problem. Teens emphasis on “fitting in” with peers may discourage them from learning.

20 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Make it Real: Student Motivation What kinds of activities might help increase student motivation? JACQUES PAVLOVSKY / SYGMA / CORBIS

21 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Increasing Student Motivation Studies suggest that engaging students via extracurricular activities creates connectedness, and contributes to student learning. Unfortunately, many schools are too large to meet the needs of many students.

22 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Violence in Schools Although schools are relatively safe, students report feeling unsafe. This fear is strongest among African American and Hispanic youth. Primary prevention of school violence is needed.

23 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15

24 Postformal Thought Researchers have proposed a “fifth stage” of thinking: postformal thought. This combines both intuitive and analytic thought, resulting in more balanced thought. It develops during early adulthood.

25 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Cognitive Flexibility Postformal thought recognizes that there are often multiple perspectives. It involves cognitive flexibility, the ability to show or hide emotion as appropriate to the situation.  Example: Not crying in front of your boss.

26 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15 Learning in College College is worth it! Benefits:  Income  Deeper, more flexible thought  Knowledge of specific subject areas  Reasoning ability  Reflectiveness

27 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 15


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