Presentation on theme: "Adolescence: Cognitive Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Adolescence: Cognitive Development The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescenceby Kathleen Stassen BergerSeventh EditionChapter 15Adolescence: Cognitive DevelopmentSlides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College
2Make it Real: Adolescent Thought Think of an argument you had as a teenager, or a time when you heard a teenager argue.Contrast the argument styles of 2 teenagers versus 2 adults. (e.g., about politics).
3Adolescent ThoughtAdolescents often combine ego, logic, and emotion in their thinking, in ways that differ from adults.These processes involve egocentrism, formal operational, and postformal thought.
4Adolescent Egocentrism A tendency to focus on oneself:Personal Fable (“I’m so unique.”)Invincibility Fable (“Nothing bad can happen.”)Imaginary audience (“Everyone is watching.”)
5Make it Real: Adolescent Egocentrism Think of real life examples of the invincibility fable, personal fable, and imaginary audience.SYBIL SHACKMAN / MONKMEYER
6Middle School: A Low Point The first year of middle school (starting in grade 5, 6, or 7) is often a “low ebb” of learning.Students are dealing with a variety of issues (see next slide).
7Issues in Middle School Some issues kids must deal with during middle school:PubertyRelational bullyingGreater competition─extracurricular activitiesShort class periods that prevent in-depth discussion
8Designing a School Some ideas to help middle schoolers: Longer class periodsTeachers rotate classes (vs. students)Use of “pods”–small groups of students
9Compared to Young Kids, Adolescents: are better arguershave a larger knowledge baseuse better memory strategiesare faster thinkersPHOTODISC
10Piaget’s Highest Stage Adolescents are in Piaget’s 4th stage, formal operational thought, characterized by:logical thoughthypothetical thoughtabstract thoughtdeductive reasoning
11Deductive ReasoningThis begins with an idea or premise and then uses logic to draw specific conclusions (“top-down” thinking).Example: If something is a duck, it will waddle and quack.
12Inductive ReasoningReasoning from one or more specific experiences to a general conclusion (“bottom-up” thinking).Example: This is a duck. It waddles and quacks. This other creature does too–so it must also be a duck!
13Formal Operational Tasks The Balance Scale ProblemMixing Chemicals
14Formal Operational Thought Adolescents can think about possibilities and about the future.They often question adult values, practices.They love to think and discuss life, and are often idealists.
15Two Types of Thought Analytic (formal operational) Intuitive: thoughts spring from feelings, memoriesIs QUICK, POWERFUL, but may be illogical!Example: assume an athlete must be popular
16Cognitive EconomyAdolescents learn to use the most efficient and effective type of thought, depending on the situation.Example: They use analytic in science class, but intuitive for personal issues.
17Learning in High School High schools emphasize the use of formal operational thought (vs. intuitive).Teachers are specialists in their field.The curriculum is rigorous, with math and science emphasized most.
18High-Stakes TestingThese tests determine whether a student is promoted in school. They are not without controversy:Are there higher drop out rates as a result?Do they increase ethnic, economic, and sexual inequality?Do they decrease student motivation?
19Student MotivationMany adolescents express boredom and unhappiness with school.38% of high school teachers say “student apathy” is their most serious problem.Teens emphasis on “fitting in” with peers may discourage them from learning.
20Make it Real: Student Motivation What kinds of activities might help increase student motivation?JACQUES PAVLOVSKY / SYGMA / CORBIS
21Increasing Student Motivation Studies suggest that engaging students via extracurricular activities creates connectedness, and contributes to student learning.Unfortunately, many schools are too large to meet the needs of many students.
22Violence in SchoolsAlthough schools are relatively safe, students report feeling unsafe. This fear is strongest among African American and Hispanic youth.Primary prevention of school violence is needed.
24Postformal ThoughtResearchers have proposed a “fifth stage” of thinking: postformal thought.This combines both intuitive and analytic thought, resulting in more balanced thought.It develops during early adulthood.
25Cognitive Flexibility Postformal thought recognizes that there are often multiple perspectives.It involves cognitive flexibility, the ability to show or hide emotion as appropriate to the situation.Example: Not crying in front of your boss.
26Learning in College College is worth it! Benefits: Income Deeper, more flexible thoughtKnowledge of specific subject areasReasoning abilityReflectiveness