Presentation on theme: "Early American Politics: The Electoral College & the Election of 1800 AP US History."— Presentation transcript:
Early American Politics: The Electoral College & the Election of 1800 AP US History
The 1 st Party System FEDERALISTS –2 Presidents G. Washington (sorta) J. Adams –Other Major Figures A. Hamilton- Secretary of Treasury D. Webster- House of Reps (MA) J. Marshall- Chief Justice of Supreme Court DEMOCRATIC- REPUBLICANS –4 Presidents T. Jefferson J. Madison J. Monroe J.Q. Adams (sorta) –Other Major Figures H. Clay- House of Reps (KY) J. Calhoun- Senator (SC)
Democratic-Republicans vs. Federalists FederalistsDem-Reps The Ideal American Definition of Democracy Foreign Policy Religious Affiliation Farmers“Natural Aristocracy” Rule by capable elite Offshoots of traditional Christianity Gov’t by virtuous/ educated citizens Deists, free-thinkers & non-traditional Christians FrancophilesAnglophiles
Democratic-Republicans vs. Federalists FederalistsDem-Reps Attitude Regional Strength American Growth via… Role of Government Common man Agriculture States’ Rights; 10 th Amendment; “Strict Construction” (see VA & KY resolutions) Aristocratic Industry Strong central Gov’t Elastic Clause; Loose Construction NE, large cities Middle States, the South
Maintaining Power: Crisis #5 (Election of 1800) Party spirit rules Election Rules –1 st place = Prez –2 nd place = VP –States choose electors; each gets 2 votes Mud-slinging Frenzy Mud-slinging Frenzy Was the country in danger of revolution?
Federalist Attacks on DRs Burleigh NY Newspaper: –“Do you believe in the strangest of all paradoxes— that a spendthrift, a libertine, or an atheist is qualified to make your laws and govern you and your prosperity.” NY Newspaper, as quoted by David McCullough: –“The refuse of Europe would flood the country and threaten the lives of ‘all who love order, peace, virtue and religion’.”
DR Attacks on Adams/Feds Charged with being a monarchist, war monger, old, addled, toothless & insane Adams was criticized for the naval build-up, the creation of a standing army, attacks on the freedom of the press & speech, and deficit spending Quote from James Callender: –“With Jefferson we shall have peace…the fiends of war will vote for Adams.”
Federalist attacks on Adams Alexander Hamilton: –John Adams lacked presidential stature because of “great and intrinsic defects in his character…. Disgusting egotism…. Distempered jealousy, and ungovernable indiscretion of temper.”
Verge of Revolution? Was the country in danger of revolution? –Thousands pouring into DC –PA governor raised weapons –CT newspaper account –TJ’s son-in-law’s account
Constitutional Power to the HR Run offs go to the HR Who should Federalist HR members choose? –George Clinton, DR Governor of NY refused to support TJ: “to promote the election of Mr. Jefferson, I will not…. …at the last contest we supported him, in opposition to Mr. Adams. We were unsuccessful, but he was elected Vice President. What did he do? His first act in the Senate was to make a damned time serving Trimming speech, in which he declared, that it was a great pleasure to him, to have an opportunity of serving his Country under such a tried patriot as John Adams, which was saying to his friends—I am in; Kiss my --- and go to H-ll.”
Hamilton turns the vote to TJ Letter to Oliver Wolcott –“TJ is to be preferred. He is by far not so dangerous a man; and he has pretentions of character…. As to Burr, there is nothing in his favor…. He is bankrupt beyond redemption, except by the plunder of his country….” Letter to Gouvernor Morris: –If there be a man in the world I ought to hate, it is Jefferson. With Burr, I have always been personally well. But the public good must be paramount to every private consideration.”
Hamilton turns the vote to TJ (cont) Letter to James Bayard (HR member from DE) –“I admit that his politics are tinctured with fanaticism…. That he has been a mischievous enemy…. That he is crafty and persevering in his objects…. Nor very mindful of the truth, and…. A contemptible hypocrite” but he “as likely as many I know to temporize—to calculate what will likely promote his own reputation…. And the probable result of such a temper is the preservation of systems…. Which, being once established, could not be overturned without danger to the person who did it.” –The votes remained tied James Bayard abstains in the next vote…
The Revolution of 1800 Reconciliation between parties? 12 th Amendment enacted Was the election of 1800 a Revolution?
Did Jefferson live up to the goals in his Inaugural Address? In other words, did he truly eschew politics & act as both Republican & Federalist? Be ready to defend your answer: –Repeal of the Alien & Sedition Acts (p.311) –Repeal of the Whisky Tax (p.311) –Attack on the Judiciary (p.312) –Louisiana Purchase (pp.312-14) –Barbary Wars (pp.315- 17) –Embargo of 1807 (p.317)