Presentation on theme: "Who fought the Cold War? USA (Democracy/Capitalism) vs. USSR (Communism)"— Presentation transcript:
Who fought the Cold War? USA (Democracy/Capitalism) vs. USSR (Communism)
What was the Cold War? Conflict characterized by the use of means short of sustained overt military action. State of hostility between nations without actual fighting Threat of war exists but is avoided through deterrence……????
What was the Cold War like? Massive paranoia Duck and cover drills Bomb shelters Loss of rights for “suspected” communists Build of atomic, nuclear weaponry and military strength
Presidents of the Cold War Harry Truman Dwight Eisenhower John F. Kennedy Lyndon Johnson Richard Nixon Gerald Ford Jimmy Carter Ronald Reagan George H.W. Bush
Factors explaining the rise if the Cold War The Truman administration harbored suspicions about Soviet designs on its neighbors. Both Soviet communism and the “American Dream” represented ends and means that the other side hated. The Soviets remembered earlier invasions; the Americans remembered the pre-war Nazi-Soviet pact The American public had an inherent fear and misunderstanding of socialism and communism
Truman President of the US Democratic Gov’t Didn’t want the Soviet Union to spread communism to satellite nations. Stalin Leader of Soviet Union. Communist Gov’t Wanted to spread communism and influence to satellite nations. Countries subject to the Western Borders of the Soviet Union. ○ Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, etc.
Marshall Plan American policy makers didn’t want to repeat mistakes made post WWI era. Let’s help war-torn nations build back up, so they can stand up to communism. ○ Truman Doctrine helped and so did this!!! Marshall Plan called for the nations of Europe to draw up a program for economic recovery from the war. The US would support them with $$$. Sec. Of State George Marshall unveiled this in 1947. ○ Soviet Union refused to join and encouraged its satellite nations to do the same. US pumped $13 billion to different nations through this.
West Germany West Germany benefited greatly from the Marshall Plan. Remember the 4 zones of occupation? By 1948, the US, GB and FR became convinced that the USSR wouldn’t allow the reunification of Germany so they merged their three occupation zones to create the Federal Republic of Germany…West Germany. Soviets responded by forming East Germany.
Berlin Airlift Capitalist West Berlin and Commuist East Berlin were symbols of the growing Cold War. People tried to flee East Berlin and Stalin blockaded the entrance (escape route) to West Gremany, and cut off supplies. Truman instead of starting a war, started the Berlin Airlift. Moving supplies into West Berlin by plane. Made more than 200,000 flights to deliver food, fuel... Soviets gave up in 1949 and airlift stopped.
The Iron Curtain In a Feb. 1946 speech, Joseph Stalin predicted the ultimate triumph of communism over capitalism. Winston Churchill, defeated for re- election, responded with his famous “Iron Curtain” speech.
NATO / Warsaw Pact North Atlantic Treaty Organization 12 Democratic “peace loving” nations in response to Soviet use of veto in United Nations Warsaw Pact Military alliance of communist countries
Election of 1948 in USA Democrats run Harry Truman Truman had desegregated the military in 1948 (an election year)…..very unpopular decision especially in the south (stronghold of democrats) Republicans run Thomas Dewey Everyone thought Dewey had election won Doesn’t campaign as hard as he should have Truman wins very close election Newspapers were printed with Dewey as winner!
Truman’s Containment Policy Trying to keep communism where it is at Not allowing communism to spread Threat of communist takeover in Greece and Turkey They become first recipients of Marshall plan aid
George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application 1.Restoration of the balance of power 2.Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside power. Encouragement of self- confidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion. Exploitation of tensions in international communism. Long-term program of U.S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan] Cooperation with communist regimes; [supporting Titoism in Yugoslavia]
3.Modification of the Soviet concept of international relations. Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences. Using “carrots & sticks’; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length. George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application
Truman Doctrine Truman’s Containment policy becomes known as the Truman Doctrine US pledged to support those who were resisting subjugation by the communists (USSR) Committed the US to intervene to prevent communist takeover attempts
… Another one bites the dust-ah! The People’s Republic of China China falls to Communist Mao Zedong. Mao – USSR supported ○ Promised starving people food US supported Chang Kaishek ○ Corrupt gov’t, lined pockets with US aid People blame Truman. China – ¼ world’s landmass & 1/3 pop UN will not recognize Mao’s gov’t
Red Scare (again) Why did Americans have such a fear of communism? HUAC Hollywood Ten Spy Cases Alger Hiss Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Senator Joseph McCarthy 1950, he charged that the State Dept. knowingly employed more than 200 Communists. Could never prove anyone But…. Lasting effects? Used FBI and other gov’t groups to hunt down communists and sympathizers.
McCarthyism Accused: gov’t officials, military personnel, and many big Hollywood names. All accused brought before Senate for hearings and to name others. Truman warned of fear and hysteria that could result. Many reputations ruined, careers in shambles, some committed suicide. Fell from power when he accused the army and it was televised. America saw him as a bully. ○ He badgered witnesses, twisted words, and laughed at the suffering of others.
Korean War June, 1950, the Communist gov’t of North Korea launched a full-scale military invasion of South Korea, a capitalist country. The Soviet Union was modeling the N. Korean gov’t after its own Communist gov’t. The United Nations (U.N.) Security Council voted 9-0 to hold N. Korea accountable for the attack.
Korean War The U.N. decided to send peace keeping troops (mainly made up of U.S. soldiers) Not wanting to call this a war, President Truman termed it a “conflict,” that needed police action from the military. He put General MacArthur in command of the U.N. forces. He did such a great job, that the U.N. thought the job had been accomplished by Sept. of 1950. BUT, they made a big miscalculation.
Korean War MacArthur underestimated the Chinese and went against orders. He was too confident and arrogant, and he threatened China with a powerful U.S./U.N. attack without clearing it first with Truman. Needless to say, he was fired and replaced with General Matthew Ridgway.
Korean War Back home, General Dwight D. Eisenhower and his running mate Richard Nixon won the presidential election of 1952. Eisenhower “Ike,” inherited the war and promised to get the country out, ASAP. He kept his promise! Gen. Dwight “Ike” Eisenhower
Korean War Fighting continued until an armistice was signed on July 27, 1953. In the final analysis, the war cost everyone in lives and materials and left no country satisfied – certainly not the U.S. *TOTAL: @ 50,000 Americans gave their lives in the Korean Theater.
Truman vs. Eisenhower 1.Marshall Plan 2.Truman Doctrine 3.Berlin Airlift 4.NATO 5.Korean War 1.Marshall Plan 2.Truman Doctrine 3.Berlin Airlift 4.NATO 5.Korean War 1.Mutual security agreements. 2.Massive retaliation. 3. “Domino Theory” 4.CIA & covert operations 5.Eisenhower Doctrine 6.“$ Diplomacy” – Part II 1.Mutual security agreements. 2.Massive retaliation. 3. “Domino Theory” 4.CIA & covert operations 5.Eisenhower Doctrine 6.“$ Diplomacy” – Part II “Containment” [George Kennan] “Brinksmanship” [John Foster Dulles]