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Provided college for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs ) THE G.I. BILL Millions of GIs bought homes, attended college, started.

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Presentation on theme: "Provided college for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs ) THE G.I. BILL Millions of GIs bought homes, attended college, started."— Presentation transcript:

1 Provided college for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs ) THE G.I. BILL Millions of GIs bought homes, attended college, started business venture, or found jobs Provided one year of unemployment compensation

2 THE G.I. BILL VA Mortgages paid for nearly 5 million new homes, by making homes affordable with low interest rates and 30 year loans. Between 1945 and 1954, the U.S. added 13 million new homes to its housing stock President Franklin Roosevelt signs the GI Bill in 1944

3 Truman and civil rights One of the major acts made by Truman was when he made an executive order by Truman was when he made an executive order to end segregation in the armed forces the armed forces Truman also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would make lynching a federal crime

4 ELECTION of 1948 Thomas DeweyHarry S TrumanStrom Thurmond Many people didn’t think he would be re-elected Truman angered many Southern Democrats by supporting integration People were so sure that Truman would lose that one headline even incorrectly said that Dewey had won Historians view the Election of 1948 as the greatest election upset in U.S. history

5 Do Now: Copy down the following essential questions…  What was the Cold War and why did it occur?  From the American perspective, why did wartime cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union collapse in ?

6 THE COLD WAR BEGINS

7 United States Democracy The era of confrontation and competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union when the threat of nuclear war created constant world tension vs. Soviet Union Communism

8 Overview of the Cold War…  The Cold War is the term we use to define the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union that lasted from Called “cold” because the 2 never fought each other directly ○ Fought through proxy wars, technological competitions, sporting events etc. Brought world to the brink of nuclear war Events that occurred during the Cold War: ○ Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift ○ Korean War ○ Space Race ○ Cuban Missile Crisis ○ Vietnam War ○ Invasion of Afghanistan ○ Iranian Hostage Crisis ○ And many more events…

9 Differing Philosophies Believed in democratic forms of government Believed economic stability would keep peace in the word Believed economic stability would keep peace in the word Believed the free enterprise system was necessary for economic growth Believed the free enterprise system was necessary for economic growth Believed in a communistic forms of government Believed in workers revolting (striking) against business owners and taking control of government Believed in workers revolting (striking) against business owners and taking control of government Wanted to control countries between Russia and Germany Wanted to control countries between Russia and Germany

10 Intro to the Cold War Video…  From World War II to Cold War From World War II to Cold War

11 Do Now: Copy down the following essential question…  Assess the strategic options available to the U.S. in 1946 concerning the Soviet Union.

12 Germany Divided Occupation zones after Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone. After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops. British French American Soviet

13 Soviets take over Eastern Europe Soviet troops move into Germany near the end of World War II As World War II ended, the Soviet army occupied the countries of Eastern Europe that Germany had conquered during the war

14 Do Now:  Get into your groups for the debate. Kennan’s committee sits closest to the counter, Wallace sits closest to the windows. Take 3 minutes to draft an opening statement of your suggestion about the action that President Truman should take.

15 Today’s Essential Question:  What was containment and how was it applied in ?  Containment Overview Containment

16 The Iron Curtain “An iron curtain has descended across the Continent” – Prime Minister Winston Churchill Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary Bulgaria and East Germany became satellite nations of Soviet Union

17 Peep under the Iron curtain March 6, 1946 Who is “Joe”? What part of Europe is sealed off? What does the wall symbolize?

18 Letter from U.S. diplomat George Kennan that led to the U.S. policy of containment of communism. Kennan said the Russians were concerned about invasions from the west and wanted a buffer zone Russians wanted to spread communism world-wide U.S. should use diplomatic, economic and military actions to keep communism contained

19 The Policy of Containment  The United States’ foreign policy in the 1940s and 1950s in order to stop the spread of communism to more countries.  Containment Policy Containment Policy Watch the following 7 minute video a teacher recorded on the early policy of containment. Take notes from her slides in your notebook, defining communism, the Truman Doctrine, and the Marshall Plan.

20 Truman Doctrine U.S. foreign policy established by President Truman saying the U.S. would protect democracies throughout the world “It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures” -- Harry Truman -- Harry Truman

21 It pledged that the United States would fight Communism worldwide Truman Doctrine was an extension to the U.S. foreign policy set forth in the Monroe Doctrine (1823) and the Roosevelt Corollary (1904) Truman Doctrine American tanks provided by the Truman Doctrine roll through Turkey American tanks provided by the Truman Doctrine roll through Turkey

22 Secretary of State George Marshall toured Western Europe; witnessed widespread homelessness and famine. Aid for Europe Children in a London suburb, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home Fearing Europeans would turn to communism as an answer to their economic problems, Marshall proposed the U.S. help to rebuild Europe, leading to…

23 Marshall Plan U.S. plan for rebuilding Western Europe, and repelling communism after World War II Plan made U.S. heroes to people of Western Europe Plan pumped billions of dollars into Western Europe for food and supplies George C. Marshall

24 Marshall Plan aids Western Europe The Marshall Plan proved to be a great success Within 4 years, countries receiving aid saw a 41% higher industrial production than on the eve of World War II Countries were stabilized and exports were rising rapidly Countries receiving aid under Marshall Plan

25 Eastern European countries were offered to take part in the Marshall Plan… … but Stalin and other East European leaders refused financial help from the United States What is this cartoon trying to say?

26 Essential Question:  Why did the United States formally commit itself to the defense of Europe by joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization?

27 Germany Divided Occupation zones after Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone. After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops. British French American Soviet

28 In June of 1948, the French, British and American zones were joined into the nation of West Germany after the Soviets refused to end their occupation of Germany. East and West Germany formed West Germany East Germany West Berlin East Berlin

29 In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade. Eventual site of the Berlin Wall

30 Berlin Airlift, June 1948-May 1949 President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy people of West Berlin At times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily

31 Berlin Airlift The Berlin Airlift saved the people of West Berlin from falling under Soviet Union control The airlift continued for 11 months before Stalin finally lifted the blockade Soviet blockade of West Germany convinced many Americans that the Soviets were trying to conquer other nations

32 Birth of NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Formed in April, 1949 to protect Western Europe from Soviet aggression

33 The Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet Union’s response to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary Bulgaria and East Germany became satellite nations of Soviet Union

34 August 1949: Soviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb  Overview Overview

35  Video Video

36  Analyze the developments from that increased suspicion and tension between the United States and the Soviet Union.

37 Coming Up… The Korean War McCarthyism

38 Essential Question  Why did the Korean War occur and how did it change the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union?

39 The Cold War Heats Up

40 Cold War spreads to Asia Communists take over in China Mao Zedong takes control of Chinese government from Chang Kai-shek’s Nationalist Party Half the world now appeared to be under Communist control The country of Korea became the next battleground in the Cold War ChinaKorea

41 The Korean War Following World War II, the Allies divided Korea at the 38 th parallel Soviets controlled North Korea; U.S. sets up a democracy in South Korea Both governments claimed to control all of Korea The Cold War gets HOT

42 The Korean War Syngman Rhee Kim Il-Sung “Domino Theory” Leader of North Korea A “Police Action” ( ) President of South Korea If one country falls to communism, others around it will fall as well

43 The Korean War On June 25, 1950, North Korea invades South Korea Communist forces push UN forces to brink of defeat UN forces under MacArthur come to the aid of South Korea The Cold War gets HOT UN forces push North Koreans back to border of China

44 The Korean War China enters the war North Koreans pushed back to border with China Chinese enter war on the side of North Koreans Macarthur calls for an invasion of China, wants to use the atomic bomb Macarthur criticized Truman for wanting a “limited war” An artillery officer directs UN troops as they drop white phosphorous on a Communist-held post in February 1951.

45 The Korean War War ends in a stalemate Korean War marked an important turning point in the Cold War An armistice was signed ending the war in July 1953 U.S. began a major military build- up; began using military force to prevent spread of communism Korea was divided at the 38 th parallel

46 Korean War Videos  Intro to the War Intro to the War  Map Explanation Map Explanation  Korean War in 30 Seconds Korean War in 30 Seconds

47 Do Now: Ponder this: You’re an American living in the 1950s. You read the following account published in the newspaper given by an attorney general: “Communists are everywhere-in factories, offices, butcher shops, on street corners, in private businesses. At this very moment they are busy at work—undermining your government, plotting to destroy the liberties of every citizen, and feverishly trying in whatever way they can, to aid the Soviet Union.” A couple days later, you read in the newspaper about a senator from Wisconsin who said: “I have here in my hand a list of a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department.” How does this make you feel? How would you react? Write your response in your notebook.

48 Essential Question: What happened during the Second Red Scare and what events caused it to occur?

49 A Second Red Scare: U.S. citizens in 1950s feared Communists wanted to take over the world. This fear became known as the Second Red Scare. Spies like Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and Alger Hiss caused fear that our government was infiltrated by the Communists

50 The National Security Act of 1947  Truman argued national security demanded huge increase in size of federal govt., including military forces and surveillance agencies  1947: Act established Department of Defense and National Security Council to administer and coordinate defense policies and advise president Created Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): operation devoted to collecting political, military, and economic information for security purposes throughout the world. Information about CIA was classified

51 The Loyalty-Security Program  National security required increased surveillance at home  1947: Federal Loyalty Security Program tested and investigated all federal employees  1950: Congress overrides President Truman’s veto to pass “Internal Security Act” Authorized arrest of suspect persons during national emergency Barred people deemed subversive or homosexual from becoming citizens or visiting U.S. Immigrants who were members of communist organizations could be deported, even if they had become citizens Truman called it “the greatest danger of freedom of press, speech, and assembly since the Sedition Act of 1798.”

52 House Un-American Activities Committee Committee set up to investigate Communist activities in the U.S. “Are you now or have you ever been a Communist?” HUAC searched for Soviet spies and Communist sympathizers. House Un-American Committee meeting in 1948 Red Scare and HUAC

53 Alger Hiss American lawyer, government official Involved in establishment of U.N. 1948: Accused of being a Soviet spy Convicted of perjury in 1950 and sent to jail

54 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg  Married couple living in U.S.  1950: Arrested for sharing atomic secrets of the Manhattan Project with the Soviets  Executed via electric chair in 1953  Only 2 Americans to be executed for espionage-related activity during the Cold War  Video Video

55 The Hollywood Ten Movie stars Lauren Bacall and Humphrey Bogart lead a protest during height of Hollywood Blacklist controversy People who were accused of being Communists were often “blacklisted” A group of Hollywood actors who were blacklisted for refusing to answer HUAC questions became known as the “Hollywood Ten” If someone was blacklisted, it meant they were denied work or ostracized from society

56 McCarthyism Joe McCarthy: Republican Senator from Wisconsin 1950: gave speech claiming he had a list of over 250 known Communists that were currently working in the State Department 1953: Began holding Senate hearings Despite lack of any proof, over 2,000 government employees lost their jobs b/c of these investigations McCarthyism How to Spot a Communist

57 Eisenhower and the Cold War Eisenhower brought “New Look” to U.S. national security policy in 1953 Main elements = Maintaining the vitality of the U.S. economy while still building sufficient strength to prosecute the Cold War Relying on nuclear weapons to deter Communist aggression or, if necessary, to fight a war Using the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to carry out secret or covert actions against governments or leaders "directly or indirectly responsive to Soviet control” Strengthening allies and winning the friendship of nonaligned governments

58 McCarthy’s Downfall 1954: turned attention to exposing supposed communist infiltration of the armed forces Army-McCarthy hearings were televised Americans watched McCarthy intimidate witnesses and offer evasive responses when questioned By time hearings were over, his credibility was ruined and he lost all his power. Have You No Sense of Decency Sir? Have You No Sense of Decency Sir?

59 U-2 Incident Col. Francis Gary Powers’ spy plane was shot down over Soviet airspace in 1960 Incident cools Soviet-U.S. relations

60 Russians launch Sputnik The Russians have beaten America into space—they have the technological edge!

61 Russians launch Sputnik Impact of Sputnik Congress establishes the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) to conduct research in rocket and space technology Congress also passed the National Defense Education Act, which provided money for education and training in science, math and foreign languages

62 The Space Race Begins In 1961, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin blasted off into space, making the Soviet Union the first nation to launch a human into orbit Kennedy said he wanted U.S. to land a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s

63 Kennedy’s challenge was met on July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong became the first human to step foot on the moon “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” – Neil Armstrong The Space Race Begins

64 Berlin Wall Built Soviets wanted to keep Germans from moving out of East Germany into West Berlin, where they could become free Berlin Wall became the symbol of Communist oppression around the world

65 Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!

66 Castro embraces Communism (1959) Cuban dictator Fidel Castro embraces Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev

67 Bay of Pigs Debacle CIA-trained Cuban exiles led an attack at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in an attempt to overthrow Castro Invasion was a disaster and failed; was a huge foreign policy blunder for the United States (1961)

68 Cuban Missile Crisis U.S. and Russia came extremely close to nuclear war when Russians place nuclear missiles in Cuba in November of 1962 In response to U.S. missiles in Turkey, the Russians began building missile bases in Cuba

69 Cuban Missile Crisis United States places an embargo on incoming shipments to Cuba from the Soviet Union, U.S. goes to DEFCON-3 Soviet ships reach the quarantine line, but receive radio orders from Moscow to hold their positions

70 Cuban Missile Crisis The Russians agreed to take their missiles out of Cuba if the U.S. removed theirs from Turkey Kennedy threatens a U.S. invasion of Cuba unless Soviet missiles are removed; U.S. moves to DEFCON-2 President John F. Kennedy thinking in the Oval Office during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962

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72 Vietnam War:

73 THEVIETNAMWARTHEVIETNAMWARTHEVIETNAMWARTHEVIETNAMWAR

74 Key figures in the Vietnam War Ho Chi Minh William Westmoreland Lyndon B. Johnson American commander in South Vietnam who told people in the media that the United States was close to winning the war, even though it wasn’t President of North Vietnam who led the efforts to defeat South Vietnam and support of the South Vietnamese Vietcong President of the United States who was president during much of Vietnam War; greatly escalated the U.S. soldier involvement in the conflict

75 Key figures in the Vietnam War Robert McNamara Richard Nixon Ngo Dinh Diem U.S. Secretary of Defense during the Vietnam War who made the American republic feel like we were winning the war President of South Vietnam who whose corruption and harsh standards led numerous people to turn to the Vietcong President of the United States during the latter part of the Vietnam War

76 Vietnam in the ’50s Southeast Asia (aka: French Indochina) Following World War II, the French controlled southeast Asia (known as Indochina) Ho Chi Minh led a revolt against the French to gain independence for Vietnam By 1954, the French fell to the Vietminh and they withdrew from Indochina, leaving Vietnam a divided country

77 Domino Theory The Domino Theory was the belief that if one country fell to communism, the other Southeast Asian nations would eventually fall to communism as well

78 This map from an American magazine published 14th November 1950 shows how much they feared the spread of Communism in the Far East.

79 South Vietnam problems A Buddhist monk commits suicide in protest to the harsh policies of the S. Vietnamese government The people of South Vietnam hated South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem. He was corrupt and did not govern in the best interest of the citizens. Diem was disliked because he discriminated against the Buddhist population Some Buddhist monks protested Diem’s rule by setting themselves on fire

80 Gulf of Tonkin Incident USS Maddox In August of 1964, Pres. Johnson announced that North Vietnam ships had fired on two American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin Johnson insisted that the North Vietnamese attack was unprovoked and responded by ordering American airplanes to attack North Vietnam

81 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution When, in August of 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Congress handed over war powers to the president After accusing N. Vietnam of attacking the U.S., Johnson asked Congress to give him the authorization to use force to defend American forces The President had the power to send U.S. troops into battle without a declaration of war

82 Operation Rolling Thunder The U.S. bombing campaign conducted against the North Vietnam from 1965 until 1968 The three-year assault was intended to get North Vietnam to stop supporting South Vietnamese guerrillas Operation became most intense air/ground battle waged during the Cold War

83 Vietcong Guerrilla army based in South Vietnam (also known as the NLF) that fought the U.S. and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War The Vietcong were South Vietnamese communists who fought for Vietnamese unification on the side of the North Vietnamese

84 Vietcong Advantages  They were familiar with the landscape (rivers, lakes, etc.)  They could find a safe haven in Cambodia, Laos or South Vietnam  They could often count on the support of the local population

85 Ho Chi Minh Trail Red line indicates Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos and Cambodia A look at the Ho Chi Minh Trail from road level, with camouflaged convoy truck approaching. Path that ran from North Vietnam to South Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia system providing manpower and materiel to the Vietcong

86 Tet Offensive January 30 – June 8, 1968 In early 1968, the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese launched a surprise attack throughout South Vietnam during the Tet, which is the Vietnamese New Year

87 Tet Offensive The Tet Offensive in 1968 was a surprise attack by the Vietcong throughout South Vietnam While the Vietcong suffered heavy losses, it was a major political victory for the Vietcong Tet was the turning point in the war and showed that the U.S. was nowhere close to winning the war

88 Credibility Gap William Westmoreland Robert McNamara Opposition to the Vietnam War grew in the United States in the late 1960s Many Americans were suspicious of the government’s truthfulness about the war Many Americans believed a credibility gap had developed (people lost trust in what the government was telling them)

89 My Lai Massacre March 16 th, 1968 An American platoon had massacred more than 200 South Vietnamese civilians who they thought were members of the Vietcong in a village called My Lai Most of the victims were old men, women and children The My Lai massacre increased feelings among many Americans that the war was brutal and senseless

90 Ongoing US casualties and losses saw an increase in antiwar sentiment on the American Home Front b/c Vietnam was a TV War where American audiences saw the brutality of war firsthand included American atrocities at My Lai also witnessed the usage of weapons like napalm and Agent Orange, which devastated the environment Napalm: mixture creates a jelly-like substance that, when ignited, sticks to practically anything and burns up to ten minutes. The effects of napalm on the human body are unbearably painful and almost always cause death among its victims.

91 Napalm  Mixture creates a jelly-like substance that, when ignited, sticks to practically anything and burns up to ten minutes. Effects on human body are unbearably painful and almost always cause death among its victims.  First used in flamethrowers for U.S. ground troops Burned down sections of forest and bushes in hopes of eliminating any enemy guerrilla fighters. Later on B-52 Bombers began dropping napalm bombs and other incendiary explosives. Air raids that used napalm were much more devastating than flamethrowers; a single bomb was capable of destroying areas up to 2,500 square yards.  Throughout war, 1965 – 1973, eight million tons of bombs were dropped over Vietnam More than three times the amount used in WWII.

92 Agent Orange  Toxic chemical herbicide that was used from about 1965 – 1970  Intended to deprive Vietnamese farmers and guerilla fighters of clean food and water in hopes they would relocate to areas more heavily controlled by the U.S. By the end of the operation over twenty million gallons of herbicides and defoliants were sprayed over forests and fields.  Fifty times more concentrated than normal agricultural herbicides Completely destroyed all plants in the area. Had devastating effects on agriculture, people, and animals. ○ The Vietnam Red Cross recorded over 4.8 million deaths and 400,000 children born with birth defects due to exposure to Agent Orange.

93 Election of 1968 "I shall not seek, and I will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your President." March 31, 1968 Johnson refuses to run for re-election After Johnson refused to run for re-election and Bobby Kennedy was assassinated, the Democrats ended up choosing LBJ’s vice- president, Hubert Humphrey, as their presidential candidate Republicans nominate former vice-president Richard Nixon, who lost to JFK in 1960

94 Election of 1968 Nixon becomes president!

95 Draft Lottery Begins Many Americans who were against the war believed the United States had an unfair draft system Minorities made up a large percentage of people drafted and most soldiers were under 21 years old

96 Kent State Massacre May 4, 1970 In April of 1970, President Nixon announced that American troops had invaded Cambodia Anti-war protestors saw this as an escalation of the war, sparking violent protests on college campuses At Kent State University in Ohio, protestors became violent. The Ohio National Guard was called in and fired upon the student demonstrators, killing four students

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99 26 th Amendment ratified President Nixon signs the 26th Amendment guaranteeing the right to vote for people over 18. Anger over the draft led to debates about the voting age. Demonstrators help public rallies and marches. The average age of a American soldier in Vietnam was 19. Because you had to be 21 to vote, many people called for changes in voting laws, saying that if you’re old enough to fight in war, you should be old enough to vote. In 1971, the 26 th Amendment was ratified, lowered the legal voting age from 21 to 18

100 Vietnamization Vietnamization called for a gradual withdrawal of American troops as South Vietnamese took more control Even though the U.S. had begun cutting back its involvement in the Vietnam War, the American home front remained divided and volatile as Nixon’s war policies stirred up new waves of protest

101 U.S. pulls out of Vietnam In January of 1973, North and South Vietnamese reach a cease-fire agreement; By 1975, the United States withdraws all of its people from Vietnam In late1975, North Vietnam violated the ceasefire and captured the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon. The war was over and the communists had won

102 War Powers Act (1973) Law was an attempt to set limits on the power of the president during wartime Required the president to inform Congress of any commitment of troops with 48 hours

103 The Pentagon Papers In 1971, a former Defense Department worker leaked what were known as the Pentagon Papers to the New York Times The documents showed how various administrations deceived Congress, the media, and the public about how the war was going The government had not been honest with the American people


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