Presentation on theme: "THE G.I. BILL Provided college for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs) Provided one year of unemployment compensation Millions."— Presentation transcript:
1THE G.I. BILLProvided college for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs)Provided one year of unemployment compensationMillions of GIs bought homes, attended college, started business venture, or found jobs
2THE G.I. BILLVA Mortgages paid for nearly 5 million new homes, by making homes affordable with low interest rates and 30 year loans.President Franklin Roosevelt signs the GI Bill in 1944Between 1945 and 1954, the U.S. added 13 million new homes to its housing stock
3Truman and civil rights One of the major acts madeby Truman was when he made an executive orderto end segregation inthe armed forcesTruman also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would make lynching a federal crime
4ELECTION of 1948Truman angered many Southern Democrats by supporting integrationMany people didn’t think he would be re-electedHarry S TrumanThomas DeweyStrom ThurmondPeople were so sure that Truman would lose that one headline even incorrectly said that Dewey had wonHistorians view the Election of 1948 as the greatest election upset in U.S. history
5Do Now: Copy down the following essential questions… What was the Cold War and why did it occur?From the American perspective, why did wartime cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union collapse in ?
7THE COLD WAR vs. United States Soviet Union Democracy Communism The era of confrontation and competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union when the threat of nuclear war created constant world tensionUnited StatesSoviet Unionvs.DemocracyCommunism
8Overview of the Cold War… The Cold War is the term we use to define the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union that lasted fromCalled “cold” because the 2 never fought each other directlyFought through proxy wars, technological competitions, sporting events etc.Brought world to the brink of nuclear warEvents that occurred during the Cold War:Berlin Blockade and Berlin AirliftKorean WarSpace RaceCuban Missile CrisisVietnam WarInvasion of AfghanistanIranian Hostage CrisisAnd many more events…
9Differing Philosophies Believed in democratic forms of governmentBelieved economic stability would keep peace in the wordBelieved the free enterprise system was necessary for economic growthBelieved in a communistic forms of governmentBelieved in workers revolting (striking) against business owners and taking control of governmentWanted to control countries between Russia and Germany
10Intro to the Cold War Video… From World War II to Cold War
11Do Now: Copy down the following essential question… Assess the strategic options available to the U.S. in 1946 concerning the Soviet Union.
12Germany DividedBritishAfter World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops.SovietFrenchOccupation zones after Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone.American
13Soviet troops move into Germany near the end of World War II Soviets take over Eastern EuropeSoviet troops move into Germany near the end of World War IIAs World War II ended, the Soviet army occupied the countries of Eastern Europe that Germany had conquered during the war
14Do Now:Get into your groups for the debate. Kennan’s committee sits closest to the counter, Wallace sits closest to the windows. Take 3 minutes to draft an opening statement of your suggestion about the action that President Truman should take.
15Today’s Essential Question: What was containment and how was it applied in ?Containment Overview
16The Iron CurtainPoland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary Bulgaria and East Germany became satellite nations of Soviet Union“An iron curtain has descended across the Continent”– Prime Minister Winston Churchill
17Peep under the Iron curtain March 6, 1946 Who is “Joe”?What part of Europe is sealed off?What does the wall symbolize?
18Russians wanted to spread communism world-wide Letter from U.S. diplomat George Kennan that led to the U.S. policy of containment of communism.Kennan said the Russians were concerned about invasions from the west and wanted a buffer zoneRussians wanted to spread communism world-wideU.S. should use diplomatic, economic and military actions to keep communism contained
19The Policy of Containment The United States’ foreign policy in the 1940s and 1950s in order to stop the spread of communism to more countries.Containment PolicyWatch the following 7 minute video a teacher recorded on the early policy of containment. Take notes from her slides in your notebook, defining communism, the Truman Doctrine, and the Marshall Plan.
20Truman DoctrineU.S. foreign policy established by President Truman saying the U.S. would protect democracies throughout the world“It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures”-- Harry Truman
21American tanks provided by the Truman Doctrine roll through Turkey It pledged that the United States would fight Communism worldwideTruman Doctrine was an extension to the U.S. foreign policy set forth in the Monroe Doctrine (1823) and the Roosevelt Corollary (1904)American tanks provided by the Truman Doctrine roll through Turkey
22Aid for EuropeSecretary of State George Marshall toured Western Europe; witnessed widespread homelessness and famine.Fearing Europeans would turn to communism as an answer to their economic problems, Marshall proposed the U.S. help to rebuild Europe, leading to…Children in a London suburb, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home
23Marshall PlanU.S. plan for rebuilding Western Europe, and repelling communism after World War IIPlan pumped billions of dollars into Western Europe for food and suppliesPlan made U.S. heroes to people of Western EuropeGeorge C. Marshall
24Marshall Plan aids Western Europe The Marshall Plan proved to be a great successWithin 4 years, countries receiving aid saw a 41% higher industrial production than on the eve of World War IICountries were stabilized and exports were rising rapidlyCountries receiving aid under Marshall Plan
25Eastern European countries were offered to take part in the Marshall Plan… What is this cartoon trying to say?… but Stalin and other East European leaders refused financial help from the United States
26Essential Question:Why did the United States formally commit itself to the defense of Europe by joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization?
27Germany DividedBritishAfter World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops.SovietFrenchOccupation zones after Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone.American
28East and West Germany formed East Berlin West Berlin East GermanyWest GermanyIn June of 1948, the French, British and American zones were joined into the nation of West Germany after the Soviets refused to end their occupation of Germany.
29Eventual site of the Berlin Wall In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade.Eventual site of the Berlin Wall
30At times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily Berlin Airlift, June 1948-May 1949President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy people of West BerlinAt times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily
31Berlin AirliftThe airlift continued for 11 months before Stalin finally lifted the blockadeThe Berlin Airlift saved the people of West Berlin from falling under Soviet Union controlSoviet blockade of West Germany convinced many Americans that the Soviets were trying to conquer other nations
32Formed in April, 1949 to protect Western Europe from Soviet aggression Birth of NATONorth Atlantic Treaty OrganizationFormed in April, 1949 to protect Western Europe from Soviet aggression
33The Warsaw PactPoland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary Bulgaria and East Germany became satellite nations of Soviet UnionThe Warsaw Pact was the Soviet Union’s response to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
34August 1949: Soviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb Overview
40Cold War spreads to Asia Communists take over in ChinaMao Zedong takes control of Chinese government from Chang Kai-shek’s Nationalist PartyHalf the world now appeared to be under Communist controlChinaKoreaThe country of Korea became the next battleground in the Cold War
41The Korean War The Cold War gets HOT Following World War II, the Allies divided Korea at the 38th parallelSoviets controlled North Korea; U.S. sets up a democracy in South KoreaBoth governments claimed to control all of Korea
42If one country falls to communism, others around it will fall as well The Korean WarA “Police Action” ( )Kim Il-SungLeader ofNorth KoreaSyngman Rhee“Domino Theory”If one country falls to communism, others around it will fall as wellPresident ofSouth Korea
43The Korean War The Cold War gets HOT On June 25, 1950, North Korea invades South KoreaUN forces under MacArthur come to the aid of South KoreaCommunist forces push UN forces to brink of defeatUN forces push North Koreans back to border of China
44The Korean War China enters the war North Koreans pushed back to border with ChinaChinese enter war on the side of North KoreansMacarthur calls for an invasion of China, wants to use the atomic bombMacarthur criticized Truman for wanting a “limited war”An artillery officer directs UN troops as they drop white phosphorous on a Communist-held post in February 1951.
45The Korean War War ends in a stalemate An armistice was signed ending the war in July 1953Korea was divided at the 38th parallelKorean War marked an important turning point in the Cold WarU.S. began a major military build-up; began using military force to prevent spread of communism
46Korean War Videos Intro to the War Map Explanation Korean War in 30 Seconds
47Do Now: Ponder this:You’re an American living in the 1950s. You read the following account published in the newspaper given by an attorney general:“Communists are everywhere-in factories, offices, butcher shops, on street corners, in private businesses. At this very moment they are busy at work—undermining your government, plotting to destroy the liberties of every citizen, and feverishly trying in whatever way they can, to aid the Soviet Union.”A couple days later, you read in the newspaper about a senator from Wisconsin who said:“I have here in my hand a list of a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department.”How does this make you feel? How would you react? Write your response in your notebook.
48Essential Question: What happened during the Second Red Scare and what events caused it to occur?
49A Second Red Scare:U.S. citizens in 1950s feared Communists wanted to take over the world. This fear became known as the Second Red Scare.Spies like Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and Alger Hiss caused fear that our government was infiltrated by the Communists
50The National Security Act of 1947 Truman argued national security demanded huge increase in size of federal govt., including military forces and surveillance agencies1947: Act established Department of Defense and National Security Council to administer and coordinate defense policies and advise presidentCreated Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): operation devoted to collecting political, military, and economic information for security purposes throughout the world.Information about CIA was classified
51The Loyalty-Security Program National security required increased surveillance at home1947: Federal Loyalty Security Program tested and investigated all federal employees1950: Congress overrides President Truman’s veto to pass “Internal Security Act”Authorized arrest of suspect persons during national emergencyBarred people deemed subversive or homosexual from becoming citizens or visiting U.S.Immigrants who were members of communist organizations could be deported, even if they had become citizensTruman called it “the greatest danger of freedom of press, speech, and assembly since the Sedition Act of 1798.”
52House Un-American Committee meeting in 1948 House Un-American Activities CommitteeCommittee set up to investigate Communist activities in the U.S.HUAC searched for Soviet spies and Communist sympathizers.“Are you now or have you ever been a Communist?”Red Scare and HUACHouse Un-American Committee meeting in 1948
53Alger Hiss American lawyer, government official Involved in establishment of U.N.1948: Accused of being a Soviet spyConvicted of perjury in 1950 and sent to jail
54Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Married couple livingin U.S.1950: Arrested for sharing atomic secrets of the Manhattan Project with the SovietsExecuted via electric chair in 1953Only 2 Americans to be executed for espionage-related activity during the Cold WarVideo
55The Hollywood TenPeople who were accused of being Communists were often “blacklisted”A group of Hollywood actors who were blacklisted for refusing to answer HUAC questions became known as the “Hollywood Ten”If someone was blacklisted, it meant they were denied work or ostracized from societyMovie stars Lauren Bacall and Humphrey Bogart lead a protest during height of Hollywood Blacklist controversy
56McCarthyism Joe McCarthy: Republican Senator from Wisconsin 1950: gave speech claiming he had a list of over 250 known Communists that were currently working in the State Department1953: Began holding Senate hearingsDespite lack of any proof, over 2,000 government employees lost their jobs b/c of these investigationsMcCarthyismHow to Spot a Communist
57Eisenhower and the Cold War Eisenhower brought “New Look” to U.S. national security policy in 1953Main elements =Maintaining the vitality of the U.S. economy while still building sufficient strength to prosecute the Cold WarRelying on nuclear weapons to deter Communist aggression or, if necessary, to fight a warUsing the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to carry out secret or covert actions against governments or leaders "directly or indirectly responsive to Soviet control”Strengthening allies and winning the friendship of nonaligned governments
58McCarthy’s Downfall1954: turned attention to exposing supposed communist infiltration of the armed forcesArmy-McCarthy hearings were televisedAmericans watched McCarthy intimidate witnesses and offer evasive responses when questionedBy time hearings were over, his credibility was ruined and he lost all his power.Have You No Sense of Decency Sir?
59U-2 IncidentCol. Francis Gary Powers’ spy plane was shot down over Soviet airspace in 1960Incident cools Soviet-U.S. relations
60Russians launch Sputnik The Russians have beaten America into space—they have the technological edge!
61Russians launch Sputnik Impact of SputnikCongress establishes the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) to conduct research in rocket and space technologyCongress also passed the National Defense Education Act, which provided money for education and training in science, math and foreign languages
62The Space Race BeginsIn 1961, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin blasted off into space, making the Soviet Union the first nation to launch a human into orbitKennedy said he wanted U.S. to land a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s
63The Space Race BeginsKennedy’s challenge was met on July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong became the first human to step foot on the moon“That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” – Neil Armstrong
64Berlin Wall BuiltSoviets wanted to keep Germans from moving out of East Germany into West Berlin, where they could become freeBerlin Wall became the symbol of Communist oppression around the world
65President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them! Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963)President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!
67Bay of Pigs Debacle(1961)CIA-trained Cuban exiles led an attack at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in an attempt to overthrow CastroInvasion was a disaster and failed; was a huge foreign policy blunder for the United States
68Cuban Missile CrisisU.S. and Russia came extremely close to nuclear war when Russians place nuclear missiles in Cuba in November of 1962In response to U.S. missiles in Turkey, the Russians began building missile bases in Cuba
69Cuban Missile CrisisUnited States places an embargo on incoming shipments to Cuba from the Soviet Union, U.S. goes to DEFCON-3Soviet ships reach the quarantine line, but receive radio orders from Moscow to hold their positions
70Cuban Missile CrisisKennedy threatens a U.S. invasion of Cuba unless Soviet missiles are removed; U.S. moves to DEFCON-2The Russians agreed to take their missiles out of Cuba if the U.S. removed theirs from TurkeyPresident John F. Kennedy thinking in the Oval Office during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962
74Key figures in the Vietnam War Ho Chi MinhWilliam WestmorelandLyndon B. JohnsonAmerican commander in South Vietnam who told people in the media that the United States was close to winning the war, even though it wasn’tPresident of North Vietnam who led the efforts to defeat South Vietnam and support of the South Vietnamese VietcongPresident of the United States who was president during much of Vietnam War; greatly escalated the U.S. soldier involvement in the conflict
75Key figures in the Vietnam War Robert McNamaraRichard NixonNgo Dinh DiemU.S. Secretary of Defense during the Vietnam War who made the American republic feel like we were winning the warPresident of the United States during the latter part of the Vietnam WarPresident of South Vietnam who whose corruption and harsh standards led numerous people to turn to the Vietcong
76Vietnam in the ’50sFollowing World War II, the French controlled southeast Asia (known as Indochina)Ho Chi Minh led a revolt against the French to gain independence for VietnamBy 1954, the French fell to the Vietminh and they withdrew from Indochina, leaving Vietnam a divided countrySoutheast Asia (aka: French Indochina)
77Domino TheoryThe Domino Theory was the belief that if one country fell to communism, the other Southeast Asian nations would eventually fall to communism as well
78This map from an American magazine published 14th November 1950 shows how much they feared the spread of Communism in the Far East.
79South Vietnam problems The people of South Vietnam hated South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem. He was corrupt and did not govern in the best interest of the citizens.Diem was disliked because he discriminated against the Buddhist populationSome Buddhist monks protested Diem’s rule by setting themselves on fireA Buddhist monk commits suicide in protest to the harsh policies of the S. Vietnamese government
80Gulf of Tonkin Incident In August of 1964, Pres. Johnson announced that North Vietnam ships had fired on two American destroyers in the Gulf of TonkinUSS MaddoxJohnson insisted that the North Vietnamese attack was unprovoked and responded by ordering American airplanes to attack North Vietnam
81Gulf of Tonkin Resolution After accusing N. Vietnam of attacking the U.S., Johnson asked Congress to give him the authorization to use force to defend American forcesWhen, in August of 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Congress handed over war powers to the presidentThe President had the power to send U.S. troops into battle without a declaration of war
82Operation Rolling Thunder The U.S. bombing campaign conducted against the North Vietnam from 1965 until 1968The three-year assault was intended to get North Vietnam to stop supporting South Vietnamese guerrillasOperation became most intense air/ground battle waged during the Cold War
83VietcongGuerrilla army based in South Vietnam (also known as the NLF) that fought the U.S. and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam WarThe Vietcong were South Vietnamese communistswho fought for Vietnamese unification on the side of the North Vietnamese
84Vietcong AdvantagesThey were familiar with the landscape (rivers, lakes, etc.)They could find a safe haven in Cambodia, Laos or South VietnamThey could often count on the support of the local population
85Red line indicates Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos and Cambodia Path that ran from North Vietnam to South Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia system providing manpower and materiel to the VietcongRed line indicates Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos and CambodiaA look at the Ho Chi Minh Trail from road level, with camouflaged convoy truck approaching.
86Tet Offensive January 30 – June 8, 1968 In early 1968, the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese launched a surprise attack throughout South Vietnam during the Tet, which is the Vietnamese New Year
87Tet OffensiveWhile the Vietcong suffered heavy losses, it was a major political victory for the VietcongTet was the turning point in the war and showed that the U.S. was nowhere close to winning the warThe Tet Offensive in 1968 was a surprise attack by the Vietcong throughout South Vietnam
88Credibility GapOpposition to the Vietnam War grew in the United States in the late 1960sMany Americans were suspicious of the government’s truthfulness about the warWilliam WestmorelandRobert McNamaraMany Americans believed a credibility gap had developed (people lost trust in what the government was telling them)
89Most of the victims were old men, women and children My Lai MassacreMarch 16th, 1968An American platoon had massacred more than 200 South Vietnamese civilians who they thought were members of the Vietcong in a village called My LaiMost of the victims were old men, women and childrenThe My Lai massacre increased feelings among many Americans that the war was brutal and senseless
90Ongoing US casualties and losses saw an increase in antiwar sentiment on the American Home Front b/c Vietnam was a TV War where American audiences saw the brutality of war firsthandincluded American atrocities at My Laialso witnessed the usage of weapons like napalm and Agent Orange, which devastated the environmentNapalm: mixture creates a jelly-like substance that, when ignited, sticks to practically anything and burns up to ten minutes. The effects of napalm on the human body are unbearably painful and almost always cause death among its victims.
91NapalmMixture creates a jelly-like substance that, when ignited, sticks to practically anything and burns up to ten minutes.Effects on human body are unbearably painful and almost always cause death among its victims.First used in flamethrowers for U.S. ground troopsBurned down sections of forest and bushes in hopes of eliminating any enemy guerrilla fighters.Later on B-52 Bombers began dropping napalm bombs and other incendiary explosives. Air raids that used napalm were much more devastating than flamethrowers; a single bomb was capable of destroying areas up to 2,500 square yards.Throughout war, 1965 – 1973, eight million tons of bombs were dropped over VietnamMore than three times the amount used in WWII.
92Agent OrangeToxic chemical herbicide that was used from about 1965 – 1970Intended to deprive Vietnamese farmers and guerilla fighters of clean food and water in hopes they would relocate to areas more heavily controlled by the U.S. By the end of the operation over twenty million gallons of herbicides and defoliants were sprayed over forests and fields.Fifty times more concentrated than normal agricultural herbicidesCompletely destroyed all plants in the area.Had devastating effects on agriculture, people, and animals.The Vietnam Red Cross recorded over 4.8 million deaths and 400,000 children born with birth defects due to exposure to Agent Orange.
93Johnson refuses to run for re-election Election of 1968Johnson refuses to run for re-electionAfter Johnson refused to run for re-election and Bobby Kennedy was assassinated, the Democrats ended up choosing LBJ’s vice-president, Hubert Humphrey, as their presidential candidateRepublicans nominate former vice-president Richard Nixon, who lost to JFK in 1960"I shall not seek, and I will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your President." March 31, 1968
94Nixon becomes president! Election of 1968Nixon becomes president!
95Draft Lottery BeginsMany Americans who were against the war believed the United States had an unfair draft systemMinorities made up a large percentage of people drafted and most soldiers were under 21 years old
96Kent State Massacre May 4, 1970 In April of 1970, President Nixon announced that American troops had invaded CambodiaAnti-war protestors saw this as an escalation of the war, sparking violent protests on college campusesAt Kent State University in Ohio, protestors became violent. The Ohio National Guard was called in and fired upon the student demonstrators, killing four students
9926th Amendment ratifiedAnger over the draft led to debates about the voting age. Demonstrators help public rallies and marches.The average age of a American soldier in Vietnam was 19. Because you had to be 21 to vote, many people called for changes in voting laws, saying that if you’re old enough to fight in war, you should be old enough to vote.President Nixon signs the 26th Amendment guaranteeing the right to vote for people over 18.In 1971, the 26th Amendment was ratified, lowered the legal voting age from 21 to 18
100VietnamizationVietnamization called for a gradual withdrawal of American troops as South Vietnamese took more controlEven though the U.S. had begun cutting back its involvement in the Vietnam War, the American home front remained divided and volatile as Nixon’s war policies stirred up new waves of protest
101By 1975, the United States withdraws all of its people from Vietnam U.S. pulls out of VietnamIn January of 1973, North and South Vietnamese reach a cease-fire agreement;By 1975, the United States withdraws all of its people from VietnamIn late1975, North Vietnam violated the ceasefire and captured the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon. The war was over and the communists had won
102War Powers Act (1973)Law was an attempt to set limits on the power of the president during wartimeRequired the president to inform Congress of any commitment of troops with 48 hours
103The Pentagon PapersIn 1971, a former Defense Department worker leaked what were known as the Pentagon Papers to the New York TimesThe documents showed how various administrations deceived Congress, the media, and the public about how the war was goingThe government had not been honest with the American people