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The Question of Berlin Cold War Berlin Present Day.

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1 The Question of Berlin Cold War Berlin Present Day

2 Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” Speech “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow. Athens alone -- Greece with its immortal glories -- is free to decide its future at an election under British, American and French observation. The Russian-dominated Polish Government has been encouraged to make enormous and wrongful inroads upon Germany, and mass expulsions of millions of Germans on a scale grievous and undreamed-of are now taking place. The Communist parties, which were very small in all these Eastern States of Europe, have been raised to pre- eminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control. Police governments are prevailing in nearly every case, and so far, except in Czechoslovakia, there is no true democracy.” “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow. Athens alone -- Greece with its immortal glories -- is free to decide its future at an election under British, American and French observation. The Russian-dominated Polish Government has been encouraged to make enormous and wrongful inroads upon Germany, and mass expulsions of millions of Germans on a scale grievous and undreamed-of are now taking place. The Communist parties, which were very small in all these Eastern States of Europe, have been raised to pre- eminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control. Police governments are prevailing in nearly every case, and so far, except in Czechoslovakia, there is no true democracy.”

3 East and West Germany A Country Divides the World Following the war, Germany is divided into four sections. These regions are controlled by The United States, France, Great Britain and the Soviet Union Why division?

4 The Division of Berlin Berlin was also divided into sectors Berlin was also divided into sectors These sectors were controlled by The United States, Britain, The Soviet Union and France These sectors were controlled by The United States, Britain, The Soviet Union and France Berlin, however, was located in East Germany, deep inside Soviet territory Berlin, however, was located in East Germany, deep inside Soviet territory

5 West Germany Under the Allies In 1948, the three western controlled zones of Germany (US,France, UK) were united, and grew in prosperity due to Marshal Aid. In 1948, the three western controlled zones of Germany (US,France, UK) were united, and grew in prosperity due to Marshal Aid. The west quickly moved to get W. Germany back on its feet and restored much of its sovereignty through self government The west quickly moved to get W. Germany back on its feet and restored much of its sovereignty through self government Citizens in the West Germany could travel freely in the west, those in the east could not Citizens in the West Germany could travel freely in the west, those in the east could not

6 East Germany Under Soviet Control Over time the western zones and the Soviet zone start drift apart economically, not least because of the Soviets' much greater use of disassembly of German industry under its control as a form of reparations. Over time the western zones and the Soviet zone start drift apart economically, not least because of the Soviets' much greater use of disassembly of German industry under its control as a form of reparations. Military industries and those owned by the state, by Nazi activists, and by war criminals were confiscated. Military industries and those owned by the state, by Nazi activists, and by war criminals were confiscated. These industries amounted to approximately 60% of total industrial production in the Soviet zone. These industries amounted to approximately 60% of total industrial production in the Soviet zone. Most heavy industry (constituting 20% of total production) was claimed by the Soviet Union as reparations Most heavy industry (constituting 20% of total production) was claimed by the Soviet Union as reparations The remaining confiscated industrial property was nationalized, leaving 40% of total industrial production to private enterprise. The remaining confiscated industrial property was nationalized, leaving 40% of total industrial production to private enterprise.

7 Why the Tension?

8 The Truman Doctrine In 1947 the British were helping the Greek government fight against communist guerrillas and they appealed to America for aid In 1947 the British were helping the Greek government fight against communist guerrillas and they appealed to America for aid America promised it would support free countries to help fight communism – this became known as the Truman Doctrine America promised it would support free countries to help fight communism – this became known as the Truman Doctrine Greece received large amounts of arms and supplies, and by 1949 had defeated the communists. Greece received large amounts of arms and supplies, and by 1949 had defeated the communists. The Truman Doctrine was significant because it showed that America, the most powerful western country, was prepared to resist the spread of communism throughout the world. The Truman Doctrine was significant because it showed that America, the most powerful western country, was prepared to resist the spread of communism throughout the world.

9 The Marshall Plan In 1947 Europe, still devastated by the war had nothing to sell for hard currency The United States recognized something had to be done both for humanitarian reasons and also to stop the potential spread of communism westward. In 1947, US Secretary of State George Marshall announced the Marshall Plan. This was a massive economic aid plan for Europe which saw the United States offer up to $20 billion for relief, but only if the European nations could get together and draw up a rational plan on how they would use the aid. The Marshall Plan, it should be noted, benefited the American economy as well as the money would be used to buy goods from the United States, and they had to be shipped across the Atlantic on American merchant vessels. By 1953 the United States had pumped in $13 billion, and Europe was standing on its feet again. Moreover, the Plan included West Germany, which was thus reintegrated into the European community.

10 Tensions Rise – Stalin Takes Action The west wanted the east to rejoin, but Stalin feared it would hurt Soviet security. The west wanted the east to rejoin, but Stalin feared it would hurt Soviet security. In June 1948, Stalin decided to try to gain control of West Berlin which was deep inside the eastern sector. In June 1948, Stalin decided to try to gain control of West Berlin which was deep inside the eastern sector. He cut road, rail and canal links with West Berlin, hoping to starve them into submission. This has become known as the Berlin Blockade He cut road, rail and canal links with West Berlin, hoping to starve them into submission. This has become known as the Berlin Blockade The west ‘s response has become legendary The west ‘s response has become legendary

11 The Berlin Airlift

12 On June 25, General Lucius D. Clay, commander of the American Occupation Zone gave the order to launch a massive airlift using both civil and military aircraft On June 25, General Lucius D. Clay, commander of the American Occupation Zone gave the order to launch a massive airlift using both civil and military aircraft The lift lasted 462 days The lift lasted 462 days Civilian and military aircraft flew supplies into the Western-held sectors of Berlin over the blockade during 1948–1949. Civilian and military aircraft flew supplies into the Western-held sectors of Berlin over the blockade during 1948–1949. The first plane flew on June 26 th, and the first British airplane flew on the 28th. The first plane flew on June 26 th, and the first British airplane flew on the 28th. This aerial supplying of West Berlin became known as the Berlin Airlift. This aerial supplying of West Berlin became known as the Berlin Airlift.

13 The Airlift Continued Military confrontation loomed while Truman embarked on a highly visible move which would publicly humiliate the Soviets. Military confrontation loomed while Truman embarked on a highly visible move which would publicly humiliate the Soviets. The American Operation became known as Operation Vittles The American Operation became known as Operation Vittles Hundreds of aircraft, nicknamed Rosinenbomber ("raisin bombers") by the local population, were used to fly in a wide variety of cargo, ranging from large containers to small packets of candy with tiny individual parachutes intended for the children of Berlin Hundreds of aircraft, nicknamed Rosinenbomber ("raisin bombers") by the local population, were used to fly in a wide variety of cargo, ranging from large containers to small packets of candy with tiny individual parachutes intended for the children of Berlin Sick children were evacuated on return flights. The aircraft were supplied and flown by the United States, United Kingdom and France, but pilots and crew also came from Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand in order to assist the supply of Berlin. Sick children were evacuated on return flights. The aircraft were supplied and flown by the United States, United Kingdom and France, but pilots and crew also came from Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand in order to assist the supply of Berlin.

14 The Airlift Continued Ultimately 278,228 flights were made and 2,326,406 tons of food and supplies, including more than 1.5 million tons of coal, were delivered to Berlin. Ultimately 278,228 flights were made and 2,326,406 tons of food and supplies, including more than 1.5 million tons of coal, were delivered to Berlin. At the height of the operation, on April 16, 1949, an allied aircraft landed in Berlin every minute At the height of the operation, on April 16, 1949, an allied aircraft landed in Berlin every minute There were 1,398 flights in 24 hours carrying 12,940 tons of goods, coal and machinery, beating the record of 8,246 set only days earlier. There were 1,398 flights in 24 hours carrying 12,940 tons of goods, coal and machinery, beating the record of 8,246 set only days earlier.

15 Why did the Americans feel they had to respond to the Soviet Blockade?

16 The Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall was the iconic symbol of the Cold War The Berlin Wall was the iconic symbol of the Cold War It was initially constructed starting on August 13, 1961 and dismantled in the weeks following November 9, It was initially constructed starting on August 13, 1961 and dismantled in the weeks following November 9, The Berlin Wall was the most prominent part of the GDR border system. The Berlin Wall was the most prominent part of the GDR border system. The wall was a long separation barrier between West Berlin and East Germany (the German Democratic Republic), which closed the border between East and West Berlin for a period of 28 years. The wall was a long separation barrier between West Berlin and East Germany (the German Democratic Republic), which closed the border between East and West Berlin for a period of 28 years.

17 The Reasons for the Wall West Germany prospered through assistance from the west West Germany prospered through assistance from the west East Germany was hindered by reparations paid to the Soviet Union East Germany was hindered by reparations paid to the Soviet Union The Soviet Union also liquidated many of their industries further hindering their progress The Soviet Union also liquidated many of their industries further hindering their progress

18 Why a Wall? The wall was built in an effort to stop the drain of labour and economic output associated with the daily migration of huge numbers of professionals and skilled workers from East to West Berlin The wall was built in an effort to stop the drain of labour and economic output associated with the daily migration of huge numbers of professionals and skilled workers from East to West Berlin There were also many defections, which had political and economic consequences for the Communist bloc. There were also many defections, which had political and economic consequences for the Communist bloc. The Wall itself effectively decreased emigration from 2.5 million between 1949 and 1962 to 5,000 between 1962 and The Wall itself effectively decreased emigration from 2.5 million between 1949 and 1962 to 5,000 between 1962 and 1989.

19 Escapes! The creation of the Wall was a propaganda disaster for East Germany and for the communist bloc The creation of the Wall was a propaganda disaster for East Germany and for the communist bloc It became a key symbol of what Western powers regarded as Communist tyranny, particularly after the high-profile shootings of would-be defectors. It became a key symbol of what Western powers regarded as Communist tyranny, particularly after the high-profile shootings of would-be defectors. Many dies trying to escape East Germany and many more went to prison if they were caught Many dies trying to escape East Germany and many more went to prison if they were caught

20 Modifications to the Wall The Wall was over 155 km (96 miles) long. The Wall was over 155 km (96 miles) long. In June 1962, work started on a second parallel fence up to 91 meters (100 yards) further in, with houses in between the fences torn down and their inhabitants relocated. In June 1962, work started on a second parallel fence up to 91 meters (100 yards) further in, with houses in between the fences torn down and their inhabitants relocated. A no man's land was created between the two barriers, which became widely known as the "death strip". It was paved with raked gravel, making it easy to spot footprints left by escapees; it offered no cover; it was mined and booby-trapped with tripwires; and, most importantly, it offered a clear field of fire to the watching guards. A no man's land was created between the two barriers, which became widely known as the "death strip". It was paved with raked gravel, making it easy to spot footprints left by escapees; it offered no cover; it was mined and booby-trapped with tripwires; and, most importantly, it offered a clear field of fire to the watching guards. Over the years, the Wall went through four distinct phases: Over the years, the Wall went through four distinct phases: - Basic wire fence (1961) - Improved wire fence ( ) - Concrete wall ( ) - Grenzmauer 75 (Border Wall 75) ( ) 1989)

21 Life Behind the Wall Life changed dramatically for the people of Berlin Life changed dramatically for the people of Berlin Entire families were cut off from one another Entire families were cut off from one another Many died trying to escape to the west Many died trying to escape to the west Travel between the two side was very difficult Travel between the two side was very difficult

22 Images- Yesterday and Today

23

24 Guard Posts

25 Checkpoint Charlie

26 The Berlin Wall

27 Questions!  Why would the United States take this approach regarding Europe following the conclusion of WWII?  Why would the Soviet Union decide to make their stand in Berlin?  Are these moves aggressive?  Is this where the Cold War began?


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