Who is Al-Saadiq?: Lineage Umm Farwa Great Granddaughter of Abu Bakr
Lineage Father Al-Baaqir Mother Umm Farwa Great granddaughter of Abu Bakr Grandfather Zainul Abideen Al-Saadiq
Early childhood Born in 83 Hijrah Close to his father Al-Baaqir and grandfather Zainul Abideen Visited with them Al-Masjid Al-Nabawi quite often Was tutored by both father and grandfather Memorized the Quran and learned a great deal about Islam early on
In his Boyhood Al-Saadiq learned about: 1. 1.Undercover agents and informants of Benu Umayya against the lovers of Ahlul Bayt 2. 2.Al-Hajjaj and his cruelty in Iraq 3. 3.The loyalist and supporters of Ahlul Bayt 4. 4.The ongoing process of teaching Islam to so many students 5. 5.The discussions about various Islamic topics
In his boyhood Al-Saadiq’s grandfather Zainul Abideen, and father Al-Baaqir were active in teaching him: the Holy Quran, then Tafseer, followed by the Hadith and Al ‑ Ah'kaam Al ‑ Saadiq was eager in learning and extremely receptive. He showed an unparalleled brilliance. Besides his father, learning came at the hands of his family.
The three phases of Islam Islam 1. Muhammad 2. Ali, Hasan & Husain 3. Rest of Imams ISLAM
The 1st of 3 Phases of Islam PHASE CARRIED OUT BY: TASKS CONSISTING OF: FIRST PHASE Muhammad (pbuh) Emphasis was on teaching Islam in depth, especially to the Sahaaba (Companions), and making Islam available to the maximum number of people—yet, bearing in mind that it would take an average person a long time to assimilate Islam. Therefore, Muhammad (pbuh) did not fight the hypocrites.
The 2 nd of 3 Phases of Islam PHASECARRIED OUT BY: TASKS CONSISTING OF: SECOND PHASE Ali, Al-Hasan, and Al-Husain They were the 3 who were to confront the negative forces caused by Islamicly weak persons which threatened to undermine Islam: Be it during Ali's Khilaafah, Al ‑ Hasan's acceptance of peaceful terms, or the events leading to the explosive but anticipated Karbala as led by Al ‑ Husain.
The 3 rd of 3 Phases of Islam PHASE CARRIED OUT BY: TASKS CONSISTING OF: THIRD PHASE Zainul Abideen and the Imams after him. Zainul Abideen took on his shoulders the heavy task of teaching the scholars (the educational endeavor) once the confrontational phase was over. This culminated by establishing the Islamic Institute (Institute of Ahlul Bayt). The main source of information was the Corpus of Knowledge Imam Ali left. The Institute was to expand and flourish by later Imams.
Al-Saadiq Understands Phase III Having reviewed the Islamic environs Al- Saadiq focuses on Phase III Much discussion takes place between him and his father and grandfather Decision seems so obvious for the course of action Early on Al-Saadiq participates enthusiastically in the teaching endeavor
Al-Saadiq in his Teens Father Al ‑ Baaqir was the acknowledged head of Ahlul Bayt's Institute, Uncle Zaid Ibn Ali was an active participant, Al ‑ Saadiq and his brothers were managers of the institute’s affairs. Al ‑ Saadiq was actively teaching, directing, debating, discussing, and disputing numerous Islamic issues. The Golden Chain of Narration
Al-Saadiq in his Twenties Marries Granddaughter of Al-Hasan, Children: 1. 1.Abdullah 2. 2.Ismail Manages the Institute along with his father Tutors his Children The Weakening of Benu Umayya's Rule Works at the orchard to earn their living, and Was frequently at the Masjid Al ‑ Nabawi performing Salat and reading Du'aa.
Al-Saadiq in his Thirties Al ‑ Baaqir died at the age of 57 Before his death Al-Baaqir confers the Imamah on Al-Saadiq, and trusts him with the Corpus of Knowledge By now Al-Saadiq is 31 Yrs old. Medina and Mecca have become the intellectual centers of learning Imamah means a designation (Nass) by the Almighty sent down to Muhammad (pbuh) through Jubra'eel, then passed down from one Imam to the subsequent one
Al-Saadiq in his Thirties Refuses to Participate in Toppling Benu Umayya Fully aware of the underground movement against Benu Umayya Vigorously Teaches: 1. 1.Tafseer and Hadith 2. 2.Shari'ah and Fiqh 3. 3.Ah'Kaam and Ethics 4. 4.Other sciences and referring to the Golden Chain of narration
Corpus of Knowledge Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following: 1. 1. Quran in chorological order 2. 2. Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima) 3. 3. Hadith (Saheefa of Ali) 4. 4. Ah’kaam 5. 5. Al-Jafr a.White Jafr: Prophets and early times b.Red Jafr: Rules of war in Islam
Al-Saadiq in his Forties Marries Hameedah Al-Maghribiyah Al-Kadhim is Born Ismail, the oldest son, dies in his thirties Revolts to topple Benu Umayya spread The capable and cunning Abu Muslim defeats Benu Umayya at Zap Battle Benu Umayya are chased out and put to the sword Even the graves of Benu Umayya’s Khalifas were dug out and the remains put to the fire
Al-Saadiq in his Forties Many revolts took place against the oppressive rulers Benu Umayya had become very weak at the same time Abu Muslim Al-Khurasani led the opposing powers from Khurasan Abu Muslim was joined by forces in Iraq led by Benu Abbas The great battle at Zab took place Benu Umayya were soundly defeated
Al-Saadiq in his Forties The revolts against Benu Umayya were by Mawaali and Arabs who were fed up with the dictatorial rulers They revolted to champion Ahlul Bayt and uphold them. للرضا من آلِ محمد Al-Saadiq did not take part, instead he was extremely busy in the Institute which reached its zenith by then Al-Saffah of Benu Abbas becomes Khalifa, followed by Al-Mansoor
During Al-Saadiq’s Imamah The institute of Ahlul Bayt is at its zenith Up to 4,000 scholars graduate during his Imamah Graduates write about 400 books Al-Usool Al- Arba’mi’ah الأصول ألأربعمائه Numerous knowledge seekers travel from far away (and live in Medina) to attend his discourses He argues with the Kharijis (deviators) and Ghulaat (exaggerationists) and all other deviant groups.
The Institute graduates Educational works of Al-Saadiq versus Al-Baaqir During Al-Baaqir’s time, 300 Scholars graduated. During Al-Saadiq’s time 4,000 Scholars graduated. Many Scholars of Al- Baaqir continued Afterward with Al-Saadiq The graph compares the relative numbers of scholars during both Imam’s times This remarkable growth came only when pressure on Ahlul Bayt eased off
Al-Saadiq’s Character #I Worked with his hands in the fields Used to deal as a merchant, selling and buying various goods Dress in immaculate manner Had an appearance commanding reverence and high esteem Discourse Capacity: People were spellbound by his discussions Fiqh clarification, dissemination, and systematization were closely related to Imam Al ‑ Saadiq
Al-Saadiq’s Character #2 Sciences of Islam were paramount in his mind, be it the Holy Quran, Hadith, Fiqh, or Philosophy Was the most ethical, one who scrupulously applied the Islamic ethical conduct Was the prototype and model of piety Was renowned for his nobility, virtue, and rectitude He was hospitable and a very generous person He held the poor in good regard, and gave in charity repeatedly
Al-Saadiq’s Character #3 Among other things he Focused on: the ethics and mannerism of Islam. stressed the perfection of character in his teachings, and repeatedly reminded his students to incorporate goodness of character, based on piety (Taq'wa), He urged his students to: deal in commerce, manufacture, and science; more so to be as independent as possible, thus avoid dealing with the government and politics. to excel in administration and management, and to be dynamic in all aspects of life
The Golden Chain of Narration Thousands of Hadiths were narrated and quoted through Ja'far Al ‑ Saadiq. He often said, "My Hadith is the Hadith of my father, and his is the Hadith of his father, up to Ali, who directly narrated the Hadith from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)." This is called the Golden Chain of Narration. These Hadiths were of immense importance, since they corrected the inaccuracies and set right the contaminations which had crept into this science.
Golden Chain of Narration: (so far) Muhammad (pbuh) Ali Al-Husain Zainul Abideen Al-Baaqir Al-Saadiq Al-Hasan The Chain
The Institute: holding discourses Discourses used to be held at: 1. 1.Al-Saadiq’s Home 2. 2.Masjid Al-Nabawi 3. 3.Mecca during Haj Discourses consisted of: Answering questions, quoting Hadith, Tafseer, Matters pertaining to Fiqh and many others
Sites of Discourses 1. Al-Saadiq’s Home 2. Masjid Al-Nabawi3. Mecca during Haj
The Institute: The whereabouts To seek his knowledge people came hundreds or thousands of miles from: Kufa Basra Qum Yemen Syria Egypt and many more Many made their home in Medina for the sake of studying at Al-Saadiq’s hands
The Institute: The Students Students became Muj’tahid, many formed their own School of Thought (Madh’habs): Abu Hanifa Anas Ibn Malik Sufyan Al-Thawri Ibn U'yainah Al-Aw'zaa'i Some of these Schools of Thought survived till today, other perished after 1-3 centuries, for lack of government support
The Institute: The Students The core were Shi’a, close, devotees, special 1. 1.They were the Special who wrote books, led discussions, argued, the activists 2. 2.The activists even practiced the technique of the way to argue and to present their point of view Majority were not Shi'a, they were Aammah (general public): 1. 1.Some were scholarly whose teachings later formed Madh’habs, such as Abu Hanifa and Malik 2. 2.Others attended just to learn
Al-Saadiq argued with men of Ideologies IdeologyTheir belief The GhulaatExaggerationists KharijiDeviators Murji'ahPostpone it to God Mu'tazilaTheological Logic JabriahAbsolute Predestination believers Qadariyah Absolute Free ‑ will believers The ZandeeqsAgnostics
Of the 4,000 Al-Saadiq’s Students: Ibn Uqda in his book Al-Mu’tabar: Names the 4,000 student-scholars who attended the institute Book (Al-Mu’tabar) was written at the end of the 2 nd Century H Ibn Uqda was Shafi’i Sahih Bukhari quotes 70 of Al-Saadiq’s student- scholars Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah quote 300 of Al-Saadiq’s student- scholars Names of these students are in Book Al-Ghadeer, by Amini
The Institute of Ahlul Bayt Al-Saadiq: The Greatest Personality the 2nd Islamic Century Produced 4000 Scholars tutored The 400 Books of Usool Abu Hanifa and Malik ibn Anas Quranic Sciences and Tafseer Hadith and Ah’kaam Theological Logic, Philosophy, and other subjects
Subjects Taught 1. 1. The Quran and its Tafseer 2. 2. Fiqh and Jurisprudence 3. 3. Science of Hadith 4. 4. Philosophy 5. 5. Science of Kalaam 6. 6. Chemistry 7. 7. Biology 8. 8. The study of Arabic Language 9. 9. Seerah of the Prophet 10. 10. encouraged his students to write and author books for the benefit of others
Subjects of Discussions Quran- Tafseer Hadith Fiqh Theological Logic Chemistry Arabic Language Seerah Discussion s
Noteworthy Students Abu Hanifa (Head of Hanafi Madh’hab) Malik ibn Anas (Head of Maaliki Madh’hab) Jabir ibn Hayyan (known as Geber in Europe) Wa’sil ibn Ata (Head of Mu’tazila) Hisham ibn Hakam Mu'min Al-Taaq Sufyan Al-Thawri (Head of his own Madh’hab) Al-Aw'zaa‘i (Head of his own Madh’hab) Ibn U'yainah
Al-Maaliki about Al-Saadiq "I used to attend discourses given by Ja'far Al ‑ Saadiq, who most of the time had a cheerful look and serene countenance, but whenever the Prophet's (pbuh) name was mentioned his color would immediately change becoming pale in of awe Him. I frequently attended his discourses over a long period of time and often saw him either praying, fasting, or reading the Holy Quran. I never saw him talking about Allah's Messenger (pbuh) without him being in a state of Wudu. Al ‑ Saadiq never spoke about anything of no concern to him [meaning Al ‑ Saadiq did not engage in insignificant talk about others]. Al ‑ Saadiq was a pious and devout man, who donated himself to Allah. لقد كنت آتي جعفر بن محمد فكان كثير التبسُّم فإذا ذُكِر النبي (ص) تغير لونه، وقد اختلفتُ إليه زماناً فما كنتُ أراه إلا على إحدي ثلاث خِصال: إما مصلياً وإما صائماً وإما يقرأ القرآن وما رأيتهُ يُحدِّثُ عن رسول الله إلا وهو على طهارة ولا يتكلم في ما لا يعنيه وكان من العباد الزهاد الذين يخشون الله
Ismah Emphasized Ismah: Ayah of Tat’heer: Surah 33 : Ayah 33. Ahlul Bayt are to be obeyed, not just revered; Imamah: was of immense importance. A designated Imam was Ma'soom, i.e., safeguarded by Allah from : 1. 1.Religious error, 2. 2.sin, and 3. 3.forgetfulness. Those who ignore the Imamah will have ignored a basic pillar in their faith.
Contemporary schools of thought Numerous Piety- minded communities were already in existence; headed by its leader called Aalim. They were each active and many were highly influential. To mention just a few there were: 1. The Shi'a (Imamah-Asserters), 2. School of Ibn Abbas, 3. School of Ibn Omar, 4. Murji'ah, 5. Khariji, 6. Mu'tazila, 7. Jabriah, 8. Qadariyah, 9. Jah'miyyah 10. Along with less important others
Contemporary Khulafaa During his Lifetime, Al- Saadiq was contemporary to the Following Rulers of Benu Umayya Benu Marwan: 1.Abdul Malik son of Marwan 2.Waleed son of Abdul Malik 3.Suleiman son of Abdul Malik 4.Omar son of Abdul Aziz 5.Yazid II son of Abdul Malik 6.Hisham son of Abdul Malik 7.Al ‑ Waleed grandson of Abdul Malik 8.Yazid III son of Al ‑ Waleed 9.Ibrahim, son of Al ‑ Waleed 10.Marwan the Ass, as named by the people.
Select sayings of Al ‑ Saadiq #1 Fear Allah as if you see Him: 1. 1.For, if you do not see Him, He certainly sees you. 2. 2.And if you think that He does not see you, you will have disbelieved in Him. 3. 3.And if you know that He sees you, yet you commit disobedience, you will have disrespected His overseeing you. The believer is good at helping others, 1. 1.He is light of burden to others, and 2. 2.A good manager of his livelihood, 3. 3.And he sees to it that he won't get stung by a bad experience more than once.
Select sayings of Al ‑ Saadiq #2 Islam is a definite rank. Faith is one rank higher than Islam. Conviction is one rank higher than faith. People have been given a rank lower than conviction. The desire for the worldly pleasures causes grief and sadness. Abstinence from the worldly pleasures brings about the serenity of both heart and body. He who gains oppression is not gaining welfare. He who mistreats people should not complain when people mistreat him. A Muslim always has three characteristics: 1.knowledge about the religion, 2.good management of life, and 3.perseverance in the faces of calamities.
Select sayings of Al ‑ Saadiq #3 When asked about eloquence Imam al-Saadiq answered: Eloquence is to express the idea in as few words as possible. The eloquent person is the one who attains his demand in the most straightforward way. Fear Allah even if to some extent. Construct a screen between Him and you even if transparent. Treat your fathers piously so that your sons will treat you piously. Keep yourselves away from the strange women so that your women will be chaste. Salutation is voluntary; while responding is obligatory. Shake hands, because this will confiscate malice.
Select sayings of Al ‑ Saadiq #4 We love those who are intelligent, knowledgeable, perceptive, expert, clement, courteous, patient, veracious, and loyal. Allah gave the noble characters exclusively to the Prophets. He who enjoys such characters should thank Allah for them. He who does not enjoy them should supplicate to Allah for them. As he was asked about these noble characters, Imam al- Saadiq said: The noble characters are piety, satisfaction, patience, gratitude, clemency, prudence, generosity, bravery, enthusiasm, veracity, charity, fulfillment of the trusts, conviction, good mannerism, and chivalry.
Select sayings of Al ‑ Saadiq #5 Imam al-Saadiq said to his companion Mufaddal: I instruct you to stick to six characters and relate them to my adherents – Shi’a. 1. 1.You should fulfill the trust of him who entrusts you with anything. 2. 2.You should like for your brother whatever you like for yourself. 3. 3.You should know that every matter has an end; therefore, you should beware of the outcomes of matters. 4. 4.Similarly, every matter has a sudden event; hence, beware of the sudden events. 5. 5.Beware of climbing an easy mountain if its slope is uneven. 6. 6.Never promise your brother of a matter that you cannot fulfill. People are equal like the teeth of a comb. With the support of his brothers, a man can be regarded as great. No goodness is expected in the friendship of those who do not like for their friends whatever they like for themselves.
Imam Al ‑ Saadiq dies Imam Al ‑ Saadiq died at the age of 65 years. His Imamah was for 34 Years His death was mourned by numerous people He designated his son, Al ‑ Kadhim, as the subsequent Imam He handed Al-Kadhim the books constituting the Corpus of Knowledge which Imam Ali had written before. Imam Al ‑ Saadiq was buried in Al ‑ Baqii, by the burial site of his forefathers, the previous Imams
Picture of Al-Baqii Before & After 1925 Al-Baqii after it was destroyed Al-Baqii before 1925
Ziyarah of Al ‑ Saadiq in Baqi’i Peace be upon you O Leaders of Guidance; Peace be upon you O Masters of Piety, Peace be upon you O Proofs of Allah on the people of the earth; Peace be upon you who were Steadfast in dealing with justice. Peace be upon you O people of the Chosen One. Peace be upon you the Family of the Prophet of Allah, Peace be upon you O people whose souls converse to the Almighty, I bear witness that you had Proclaimed and Advised and had Persevered for the sake of Allah And that you were belied and mistreated, yet you forgave And I bear witness that you are the rightly guided leaders; and that obedience to you is incumbent and that your speech is correct and you had invited to the Truth but were not answered and you commanded but were not followed……
Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim