2World PopulationPopulation GrowthThe increase in the world’s populationGrowth RateHow fast the population of a country is growing.Birth RateHow many people are born in a country each year.Death RateHow many people die in a country each year.Natural IncreaseWhen population grows at such a rate that resources can keep up.Doubling TimeHow long it takes for the population of a region to double.
3Population Distribution Population Distribution is uneven. Many things affect this including environmental issues and human issues.Factors that in distribution• Natural resources (oil, arable land, water)• Climate (hot/cold; wet/dry)• Economic development• Government policy• Rural/urban settlement• Capital resources (transportation, technology)• Conflicts (refugees)MigrationThe movement of peoplePush FactorsThings that make people want to leave an area such as conflict, lack of jobs, persecution, etc. . .Pull FactorsOpposite of Push Factors. Things that make people want to go to an area such as lack of conflict, economic opportunity, freedoms, family ties, etc . . .UrbanizationPeople leaving rural (country) areas to go to urban (city) areas.
4Global CulturesCulture: The way of life of a group of peopleElements of CultureLanguageLatin AmericaSpanish and Portuguese speaking worldFrancophone worldFrench SpeakingReligionMuslim WorldFound mostly in North Africa and the Middle East (SW Asia).Also found in parts of SE Asia.
5Cultural ChangeCulture HearthsA place of great cultural significance to a particular area.Cultural Contact (Cultural Diffusion)The spreading of culture from one area to another.Industrial and Information RevolutionsGreat changes in the way that people work and communicate that have influenced the world.
6Types of Religion Ethnic Religions Animist Religions Usually involves one ethnic group and usually does not spread to other cultures.Examples: Hinduism (India), Confucianism and Taoism (China), Shintoism (Japan), and Judaism (Israel)Animist ReligionsBelief in the presence of spirits and the forces of naturePolytheism: Belief in many godsExamples: Native American Religions, HinduismUniversalizing ReligionsSeek followers all over the world by using missionariesMonotheism: Belief in one GodExamples: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism
7BuddhismOriginated in India, but no is found mostly in East and SE AsiaHinduismFound mostly in IndiaChristianityBegan in the Holy Land. Now is dominant religion of Europe, Latin America, and some other areas.JudaismThe Jews have been scattered throughout the world because of the Diaspora.There are large concentrations in the United States and Israel.
8Levels of Economic Activity PrimaryEconomic activities that deal directly with natural resources.Mining, forestry, drilling for oil, agriculture, etc. . .SecondaryManufacturingTertiaryService industriesRetail
9Economic SystemsTraditional EconomyThings are done the way they have always been done.Market Economy (Capitalism):Producers and consumers decide what is made.Producers: Make goods or provide servicesConsumers: Consume goods and servicesSupply and Demand:The balance between what is available and what people want.Mixed Economy: A blending of different economic systems.Command EconomyThe Government decides what is producedSocialism: Everything is jointly owned by everyoneCommunism: The government owns everything. There is no private property.
10Resources, Trade, and the Environment Resources: What nations have to produce the things they needNatural Resources: Resources that come from the earthRenewable: Natural resources we can get more of.Ex: Soil, ForestsNon-Renewable: Natural resources we can not get more ofEx: Fossil FuelsCapital ResourcesPlants and Equipment: InfrastructureMoney for InvestmentHuman ResourcesThings that people can provideEducation: The higher the education of an individual, the more they can usually contribute to the economy.Entrepreneurial Ability: The ability to start a new business.
11Developed CountriesDeveloped countries have a higher standard of living.They make most of their income from Secondary and Tertiary economic activities.They have a low birth rateThey have a low death rateThey have a long life expectancyThey have a small percentage of the population under 15They have a high literacy rateLow infant mortalityHigh per capita GDP
12These are countries with a lower standard of living. Developing CountriesThese are countries with a lower standard of living.They make most income from primary economic activitiesThey have low per capita GDPThey have high birthrateLow literacy ratesHigh infant mortalityLow life expectancyHigh percentage of the population under the age of 15High death rate██ High human development██ Medium human development██ Low human development██ Unavailable
13Political and Economic Systems Levels of GovernmentUnitary SystemAll power is held by the central governmentFederal SystemPower is divided between the State and National Government.Types of GovernmentAutocracy (Totalitarianism)Single ruler holds all powerEx:DictatorshipAbsolute MonarchyConstitutional MonarchyOligarchyRule by a small groupAristocracyRule by rich land-ownersDemocracyGovernment where people vote and elect leadersDirect: People vote directly on issuesRepresentative: People elect others to make decisions for them.
14World TradeUneven Distribution of ResourcesNot every country has everything it needs to survive and continue to develop.Comparative AdvantageCountries will make what they can sell for profit and import what they can not make themselves.InterdependenceCountries need to trade with each otherMultinational CorporationsBusinesses that operate in more than one nation.Ex: McDonalds, Nike, etc . . .
15Trade Organizations/Economic Organizations EU: European UnionNAFTA: North American Free-Trade AgreementASEAN: Association of SE Asian NationsOPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting CountriesBarriers to TradeTariff: A tax against importsEmbargo: To block an import completelyQuota: To limit the amount of an import