Presentation on theme: "Ch. 4 “People and Places”. 4.1 Elements of Culture Culture: The total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of specific."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 4 “People and Places”
4.1 Elements of Culture Culture: The total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of specific group –Can involve: –Religion, food, education, language, relationships, etc.
Society A group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and culture Cubans
Ethnic Group a specific group that shares a language, customs, and heritage.
Culture Change and Exchange 3 Types: 1.Innovation 2.Diffusion 3.Acculturation
Innovation Taking existing technology and resources and creating something new to meet a need.
Diffusion Spread of new ideas Resources like the television and internet help to spread new ideas Cultural hearth- where it all begin; the site of innovation
Acculturation Occurs when a society changes because it accepts or adopts an innovation.
Language Allows people to communicate Helps establish cultural identity. Dialect: differ. Version of speech –ie.: southern drawl Language can be spread through trade and migration
Religion Monotheistic: one god Polytheistic: more than one Animistic: divine forces are within nature Spread through diffusion and converts
Major Religions Judaism –Holy book is known as Torah. –Centered in Israel Christianity –Evolved from Judaism –Based on teachings of Jesus –Holy book is Bible
Islam –Based on teachings of the prophet Muhammad –Holy book is the Qur’an Hinduism –Polytheistic –Based on a caste system Buddhism –Derives from Hinduism –Goal is to reach an enlightened state known as “Nirvana”
Ch. 4.2 “Population Geography”
World Wide Population Growth Birthrate: –Number of births per 1000 Mortality rate: –Number of deaths per 1000 Population Growth –“BR-MR”= pop growth
Population Distribution Habitable Lands –Area between 20° and 60° latitude Urban-rural mix
20° 60° Population Distribution
Migration Movement of people from one place to another Push-pull factors: –push: cause people to leave their homeland –pull: what attracts people to another location
Population Density Avg. # of people who live in a measurable area Carrying capacity: the ability of an areas land to support the inhabitants.
Ch. 4.3 “Political Geography” Nation: –people with common culture living in a territory State : –Independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has control of internal/external affairs Nation-state: –nation and state occupy same territory
Types of Government Democracy: –Citizens hold political power, either directly or through elected reps.
Monarchy Ruling family, headed by a king or queen holds power. May or may not share power with citizen bodies.
Dictatorship Individual or group holds complete political power.
Communism Govt. and econ. system where all political power and means of production are held by the govt. in the name of the people
Geographic Characteristics Size –More potential for resources and population base Shape –Impacts how goods are moved and how easily it can be governed
Location –Landlocked: land w/ no direct outlet to water Bolivia
National Boundaries Natural Boundaries –Rivers, lakes, or mountains Artificial Boundaries –Fixed line generally following lat. or long.
Regional Political Systems Countries are often divided into smaller systems to make govt. more efficient. –Towns, cities, villages are examples
Ch. 4.4 “Urban Geography” Cities: –Centers of business & culture –Large populations Suburbs: –Political units that touch the borders of the central city –ie: Redlands Metropolitan Area: –Cities, suburbs, linked together to form
Urbanization Rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle
City locations Cities grow around lakes, rivers or coastal areas –Areas with good natural resources –Economic growth because of location Ex.: Pittsburgh, PA located around iron and coal mines
Land Use Residential: homes and apts. Industrial : manufacturing Commercial: private businesses
Central Business District (CBD) Core of the city, almost always based on commercial activity Land is very expensive
Ch. 4.5 “Economic Geography” Economy: –Consists of the production and exchange of goods and services among a group Economic System: –the way people produce and exchange goods and services
Types of Economic Systems Traditional econ.: no exchange of money Command Econ: –Production is determined by a central govt. Market Econ: –Production is determined by demand from consumers Mixed Econ: – combination of command and market econ’s for the benefit of all
Economic Levels Primary: –Gather raw materials, derived from resources Secondary –Turn raw materials into goods
Tertiary: –Add business and professional services Quaternary: –Activities by highly-trained persons
Natural Resources Renewable: –Resources can be replaced through a natural process Non-renewable: –Resources that can not be replaced once they have been removed Inexhaustible: –as a result of the planetary or solar process
Economic Support System Infrastructure: –Basic support system that keeps an economy going –The more sophisticated the more developed the country is
Measuring Econ. Development GNP Gross National Product: –Total value of all goods and services GDP Gross Domestic Product: –Total value of all goods and services within a country