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UNIT 3 Economic Geography WG.7a-b, 8, 9a-d. Natural Resources Renewable resources will replace themselves over time. Renewable resources will replace.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 3 Economic Geography WG.7a-b, 8, 9a-d. Natural Resources Renewable resources will replace themselves over time. Renewable resources will replace."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 3 Economic Geography WG.7a-b, 8, 9a-d

2 Natural Resources Renewable resources will replace themselves over time. Renewable resources will replace themselves over time. Examples would be soil, water, and forests Examples would be soil, water, and forests

3 Nonrenewable resources are resources that will not replace themselves. Once they are used, they are gone. Nonrenewable resources are resources that will not replace themselves. Once they are used, they are gone. Examples--fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas), and metals (gold, iron, copper, and bauxite) Examples--fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas), and metals (gold, iron, copper, and bauxite)

4 Human Resources Human resources are man and his mind Human resources are man and his mind Human resources depend on level of education, whether it is skilled or unskilled labor, and are entrepreneurial or managerial abilities needed. Human resources depend on level of education, whether it is skilled or unskilled labor, and are entrepreneurial or managerial abilities needed.

5 Capital Resources Capital resources are resources that can be used to make more, like money or tools Capital resources are resources that can be used to make more, like money or tools key features of capital are the availability of money for lending, the level of infrastructure, the availability and use of tools, machines, and technologies key features of capital are the availability of money for lending, the level of infrastructure, the availability and use of tools, machines, and technologies

6 Three levels of economic activity Primary Activities- -dealing directly with natural resources (ex.--fishing, farming, mining, and forestry) Primary Activities- -dealing directly with natural resources (ex.--fishing, farming, mining, and forestry) Secondary Activities- -are manufacturing and processing of natural resources (ex.--steel mills, automobile assembly, sawmills Secondary Activities- -are manufacturing and processing of natural resources (ex.--steel mills, automobile assembly, sawmills

7 Tertiary Activities--are service industries (ex.--transportation, retail trade, informational technology services) Tertiary Activities--are service industries (ex.--transportation, retail trade, informational technology services)

8 Energy resources and technology as it has changed over time Wood--deforestation Wood--deforestation coal--pollution, mining problems, competition with oil and gas coal--pollution, mining problems, competition with oil and gas Petroleum--transportation, environmental considerations Petroleum--transportation, environmental considerations

9 Energy resources and technology as it has changed over time cont. Nuclear--contamination, waste Nuclear--contamination, waste solar or wind--cost, aesthetics solar or wind--cost, aesthetics

10 Patterns of land use Most economic activities are relatively close to the natural resources they use; ex.- coal/steel, grain/cattle, fishing/ocean, hydroelectric power/aluminum smelting Most economic activities are relatively close to the natural resources they use; ex.- coal/steel, grain/cattle, fishing/ocean, hydroelectric power/aluminum smelting

11 Patterns of land use cont. Not all nations are close to the resources they use: ex.--Japan has limited natural resources, but they are a major industrial power and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have lots of oil, but no major industries Not all nations are close to the resources they use: ex.--Japan has limited natural resources, but they are a major industrial power and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have lots of oil, but no major industries

12 Examples of technology creating demand Some new technologies have created a demand for a particular natural resource-- steam engine and coal, internal combustion engine and gas, computer chips and skilled labor Some new technologies have created a demand for a particular natural resource-- steam engine and coal, internal combustion engine and gas, computer chips and skilled labor

13 Costs and benefits from using natural resources Costs Costs 1. Resource depletion. 1. Resource depletion. 2. Environmental destruction 2. Environmental destruction 3. Health problems 3. Health problems

14 Costs and benefits from using natural resources Benefits Benefits 1. Helps us produce goods and services. 1. Helps us produce goods and services. 2. It creates employment opportunities 2. It creates employment opportunities 3. It helps develop new technologies 3. It helps develop new technologies

15 The effects of unequal distribution of resources Because resources are distributed unequally around the world, it causes several things to happen Because resources are distributed unequally around the world, it causes several things to happen 1. Interdependence of nations -- they must trade with each other to acquire the goods they do not possess 1. Interdependence of nations -- they must trade with each other to acquire the goods they do not possess

16 The effects of unequal distribution of resources cont. 2. Uneven economic development (rich and poor countries) 2. Uneven economic development (rich and poor countries) 3. Energy producers and consumers 3. Energy producers and consumers 4. Imperialism (one country dominating another) 4. Imperialism (one country dominating another) 5. conflicts over control of resources 5. conflicts over control of resources

17 Differences between developing and developed nations Developed nations have better access to natural and capital resources Developed nations have better access to natural and capital resources Developed nations have more investment in technology and have created a better infrastructure Developed nations have more investment in technology and have created a better infrastructure

18 Differences between developing and developed nations cont. Developed nations have more skilled labor Developed nations have more skilled labor Developed nations have a higher level of economic development Developed nations have a higher level of economic development Developed nations have a higher standard of living and a higher quality of life Developed nations have a higher standard of living and a higher quality of life

19 What are the indicators of economic development Is the country more urban or more rural? Developed nations are generally urban. Is the country more urban or more rural? Developed nations are generally urban. At what labor level do most people work? Most people in developed nations work in secondary and tertiary areas. At what labor level do most people work? Most people in developed nations work in secondary and tertiary areas.

20 What are the indicators of economic development cont. Is the Gross Domestic Product for the nation high or low? Most developed nations have a high GDP. Is the Gross Domestic Product for the nation high or low? Most developed nations have a high GDP. What is the level of the educational achievement? Most developed nations have a highly educated population What is the level of the educational achievement? Most developed nations have a highly educated population

21 Indicators of standard of living and quality of life A nation has a high standard of living and a high quality of life if… A nation has a high standard of living and a high quality of life if… the population growth rate is low the population growth rate is low the population age distribution is even the population age distribution is even

22 The literacy rate, life expectancy rate and percentage of urban people is high The literacy rate, life expectancy rate and percentage of urban people is high the infant mortality is low the infant mortality is low

23 Why do countries trade? To import goods and services they need To import goods and services they need to export goods and services they can sell for profit to export goods and services they can sell for profit

24 What influences economic activity? A countrys access to human, natural and capital resources. A countrys access to human, natural and capital resources. Do they have a skilled workforce? Do they have natural resources? Are their transportation and communication networks modern, outdated or nonexistent? Do they have access to new technology? Do they have a skilled workforce? Do they have natural resources? Are their transportation and communication networks modern, outdated or nonexistent? Do they have access to new technology?

25 What influences economic activity? cont. A countrys location and ability to exchange goods. A countrys location and ability to exchange goods. Are they landlocked? Are they an island or coastal nation? How close are they to shipping lanes? What is their access to communications Are they landlocked? Are they an island or coastal nation? How close are they to shipping lanes? What is their access to communications

26 What influences economic activity? cont. They are members of a political or economic alliance that provides access to markets. They are members of a political or economic alliance that provides access to markets. Examples would be, the European Union (EU), North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA) Examples would be, the European Union (EU), North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA)

27 What is comparative advantage? Comparative advantage means a country will export goods and services that they can produce at lower relative costs than other countries. Comparative advantage means a country will export goods and services that they can produce at lower relative costs than other countries.

28 What are the effects of comparative advantage? Enables nations to produce goods and services they can sell for profit Enables nations to produce goods and services they can sell for profit influences the development of industries (ex. steel, aircraft, automobile, clothing) influences the development of industries (ex. steel, aircraft, automobile, clothing) supports specialization and efficient use of human resources supports specialization and efficient use of human resources

29 Examples of countries and their use of resources Japan--highly industrialized despite limited natural resources Japan--highly industrialized despite limited natural resources Russia--has numerous resources but many are not economically profitable to actually develop Russia--has numerous resources but many are not economically profitable to actually develop

30 Examples of countries and their use of resources cont. United States--diversified economy, specialized industry, abundant resources United States--diversified economy, specialized industry, abundant resources Cote dIvorie--limited natural resources, but they use cash crops to buy manufactured goods Cote dIvorie--limited natural resources, but they use cash crops to buy manufactured goods

31 Examples of countries and their use of resources cont. Switzerland--has limited natural resources, but produces goods on a global scale Switzerland--has limited natural resources, but produces goods on a global scale

32 What are the effects of unequal distribution of resources? Unequal distribution of resources causes countries to specialize in the goods and services they produce. It also encourages countries to trade with one another for the goods they can not produce themselves. It allows some to make a profit Unequal distribution of resources causes countries to specialize in the goods and services they produce. It also encourages countries to trade with one another for the goods they can not produce themselves. It allows some to make a profit

33 How has economic interaction changed over time? Labor has moved from individual homes (cottage industry) to factories to offices to telecommunications Labor has moved from individual homes (cottage industry) to factories to offices to telecommunications there has been a large migration from rural to urban areas there has been a large migration from rural to urban areas

34 How has economic interaction changed over time? cont. Industrialized countries now export labor intensive work to developing nations Industrialized countries now export labor intensive work to developing nations trade alliances have grown in number trade alliances have grown in number service industries (tertiary) have grown in number service industries (tertiary) have grown in number

35 How has economic interaction changed over time? cont. Financial service networks and international banks have increased Financial service networks and international banks have increased products have become internationally assembled instead of everything being made in one location. (ex. Vehicles, electronics) products have become internationally assembled instead of everything being made in one location. (ex. Vehicles, electronics)

36 How has economic interaction changed over time? cont. Modern transportation networks that allow for rapid and efficient exchange of goods and services (ex. Federal Express, UPS, US Postal Service) have grown Modern transportation networks that allow for rapid and efficient exchange of goods and services (ex. Federal Express, UPS, US Postal Service) have grown Widespread marketing of products has increased (ex. Fuji, Nike, etc) Widespread marketing of products has increased (ex. Fuji, Nike, etc)

37 Examples of Economic Unions EU--European Union EU--European Union NAFTA--North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA--North American Free Trade Agreement OPEC--Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC--Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ASEAN--Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN--Association of Southeast Asian Nations

38 Advantages of Economic Unions They allow for more efficient industries They allow for more efficient industries They have access to larger markets They have access to larger markets They have access to more human, natural, and capital resources without restrictions They have access to more human, natural, and capital resources without restrictions They have a greater influence on world markets They have a greater influence on world markets

39 Disadvantages to economic unions They cause some industries to close They cause some industries to close Certain industries become concentrated in particular countries while forgetting the smaller ones. Certain industries become concentrated in particular countries while forgetting the smaller ones. Agribusiness is replacing the family farm. Agribusiness is replacing the family farm. There is often difficulty in agreeing on common economic policies. There is often difficulty in agreeing on common economic policies.


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