Presentation on theme: "“In Other Words”: Quoting, Summarizing and Paraphrasing Student Support Services Troy University; Troy, AL 36082."— Presentation transcript:
“In Other Words”: Quoting, Summarizing and Paraphrasing Student Support Services Troy University; Troy, AL 36082
Objectives To teach students the differences between a summary, paraphrase and direct quote. To teach students that quoting, summarizing and paraphrasing are important oral and written communication skills. To remind students to use quoting, summarizing and paraphrasing when note-taking, essay writing, or speaking. To teach students to avoid plagiarism issues by appropriately citing sources when quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing.
So... what is “Quoting” or a “Quote”? According to the authors at http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/ notetake/note20quotes.html, “Quotations are used to support the ideas you present in your writing. You do this to give your ideas or arguments authority. There are two types of quotations: indirect... and direct.”http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/ notetake/note20quotes.htmlindirectdirect In other words, USE QUOTES AS SUPPORTING EVIDENCE. You are not to write an essay that consist of one quote after another. Learn the “Two-thirds One-third Rule” for Quoting – Let 2/3 of the words you write be your own and quote 1/3 or fewer of the words. Write your views first and then, use quotes only to support or add credibility to your view.
Reminder about Quoting... USE QUOTES AS SUPPORTING EVIDENCE. You are not to write an essay that consist of one quote after another. If you use a quote, explain its relevance in your own words. In short, write your views first and then, use quotes only to support or add credibility to your view.
More about “Quotes” Quotes may be repeated or used in an indirect or direct manner. Indirect Quoting is presenting an author’s words in your own words. Examples of Indirect Quotes/Quoting: Summaries and paraphrases Direct Quoting is copying or repeating words verbatim (exactly as they appear) from a source other than your own mind. Example of a Direct Quote: Direct or Indirect Quoting, according to the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue Center handout, involves keeping the “person’s name near the quote in your notes, and in your paper.”
Now, on to “Paraphrasing”... Definition: “Paraphrasing is the process of rewriting someone else's idea(s) in your own words.” (unilearning) Paraphrasing requires you to reword the information you locate in your source material. Length: “A paraphrase is usually around the same length as the original.” (unilearning) A paraphrase may include some of the same words as the original quote. However, try to use your own words or synonyms whenever you can. (unilearning)
Why Paraphrase Quotes and Cite Sources? Main Reasons: (1) To show that you comprehend what you have read and yet, you still can give your source credit for the ideas, and (2) To keep your instructors from accusing you of plagiarism or intellectual theft. Please Watch this short youtube video entitled “Avoiding Plagiarism.” Go to: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ym9Zn8TOB bg&feature=related. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ym9Zn8TOB bg&feature=related
About the Video Now, based on what you heard in the video, take a moment to summarize or paraphrase (mentally, orally or on paper) what the speaker said. Did you remember to include in your summary or paraphrase of the video’s content these terms? Plagiarism Quote Paraphrase Key words Voice Flow
Paraphrasing (cont) Example from unilearn: (Original) The climate in most groups and organizations does not encourage open expression of feelings. The necessity of hiding feelings, Organizational Development practitioners believe, has a negative effect not only on group member’s willingness and ability to solve problems constructively, but also on job satisfaction and performance. From: Stoner, J. A. F. & Wankel, C. (1986) Management. (3rd Edition), New Jersey: Prentice- Hall. Example from unilearn: (Paraphrase) Stoner and Wankel (1986) report that many people work in settings where they must routinely suppress their emotions. Therefore, suppressing emotions may have a negative impact on employees’ problem-solving ability, motivation, enjoyment and workplace productivity (Stoner and Wankel, 1986). From: unilearn (Note: Paraphrase is almost as long as the original.)
Paraphrase (cont.) Note: Many instructors prefer that you paraphrase instead of use direct quotes. “Why,” you still may ask. Paraphrasing indicates your reading comprehension and application of thinking skills. They also want to see that you recognize when to give credit to the researcher or conceiver of the ideas you include in your speech or writing.
So, what is a summary? A summary is the main idea of the work. (It’s also an indirect quote.) A summary is condensed (more briefly stated) when compared to the original quote or a paraphrase.
Example of a Summary Source: unilearning Helpful HINT ~
In Other Words... PRACTICE EXERCISE INSTRUCTIONS The next few slides will include some quoted material. First, write a paraphrase of the quote. Next, summarize the main idea that each quote expresses.
Paraphrase and Summarize this ancient proverb. “ By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; Second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest. ” (Confucius)
Paraphrase and Summarize this verse of poetry. “ And you, my father, there on that sad height,/ Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray./ Do not go gentle into that good night./ Rage, rage against the dying of the light. ” (Dylan Thomas).
Paraphrase and Summarize this spoken quote. “In a world filled with hate, we must still dare to hope. In a world filled with anger, we must still dare to comfort. In a world filled with despair, we must still dare to dream. And in a world filled with distrust, we must still dare to believe.” (Michael Jackson).
Summarizing & Paraphrasing Visual Rhetoric Sometimes, you may have to summarize or paraphrase into prose the data presented in graphic format. Task 1 is to paraphrase or put into sentence format what is represented visually. Task 2 is to summarize or make an assertion about the main idea that the graphic represents. See the next slide.
Paraphrase and Summarize the content of this chart (visual rhetoric). Almost half the world — over three billion people — live on less than $2.50 a day. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor and Statistics
Why Summarize? Avoid plagiarism by summarizing, paraphrasing and citing your sources. Please watch this short video that gives you a good summary of this presentation. The video is entitled “Tips to Avoiding Plagiarism”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= 3rNIIIl0bac&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= 3rNIIIl0bac&feature=related
THE END “In Other Words”: Quoting, Summarizing and Paraphrasing Please complete the Academic Seminar Evaluation form and submit it to an SSS staff member. Feel free to make workshop suggestions anytime. Phone 334-670-5985. Enjoy your learning experience here at Troy University. HAVE A GREAT DAY!