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Working with Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing and Citation A Duke Writing Studio Workshop For the Nicholas School of the Environment Feb.

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Presentation on theme: "Working with Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing and Citation A Duke Writing Studio Workshop For the Nicholas School of the Environment Feb."— Presentation transcript:

1 Working with Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing and Citation A Duke Writing Studio Workshop For the Nicholas School of the Environment Feb. 1, 2013

2 Citations have 2 parts: The in-text citation that appears with the material from the source. Sometimes this is in the format of (author year): (Chang 2011) and sometimes it’s a number: (2). NB! Parenthetical citations are preferred over footnotes at the Nicholas School. The References list at the end of the paper, which includes full bibliographical information for each source, usually listed in alphabetical order by author’s last name.

3 Things that need to be cited: Quotations: When the EXACT words of the source are important. Use the exact words and put them in “quotation marks.” Paraphrases: When the exact words aren’t important, but the IDEA is. Put the idea in your OWN words. About the same length as the original. Summary: in your own words; much shorter than the original. Tables, graphs, etc. Original Intellectual Work

4 Paraphrasing The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. From Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2 nd ed. (1976):

5 Compare these two paragraphs. Is the second an acceptable paraphrase of the original? Original: Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. An Acceptable Paraphrase? Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.

6 The second is TOO CLOSE to the first: Original: Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. NOT an Acceptable Paraphrase: Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.

7 A Paraphrase MUST: Vary in Word Choice Vary in Sentence Structure Include a Citation of the Original Source

8 Compare these two paragraphs. Is the second an acceptable paraphrase? Compare word choice and sentence structure, and look for an in-text citation. Original: Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. An Acceptable Paraphrase? In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material quoted verbatim (Lester 1976).

9 Yes! The second is an acceptable paraphrase. It varies in word choice and sentence structure, and includes a citation. Note that it does not preserve all the details of the original. Original: Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. An Acceptable Paraphrase? In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material quoted verbatim (Lester 1976).

10 Tips for Successful Paraphrasing: Read over the passage and understand it. Don’t try to memorize it! Once you understand the meaning, cover the original, and put it in your own words. It may help to say it out loud before writing it down. You don’t need to include every details. Compare your version to the original in word choice and sentence structure. Be sure to include a citation!

11 Paraphrase this passage! Put it in your own words, using the method in the previous slide. Be sure to include a citation. “The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous control on our climate,” Cousteau told the camera. “The cold ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now threatened by human activity.” From “Captain Cousteau,” Audobon (May 1990): 17.

12 A Good Resource on Paraphrasing and Citing Sources The Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) has resources on paraphrasing. The examples from this workshop come from their website: e/619/2/ Go to their workshop for more examples and more practice with paraphrasing.


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