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© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Writing and Speaking Chapter 7
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Writing – Prepare Don’t be intimidated by the blank page, consider that it offers every possibility Decide what you want to say Decide what your goal is – is it essay, short story, critique of another’s work? What will your topic be? –Use freewriting and/or brainstorming to help you decide Determine who your audience is, beyond your instructor –What is their level of knowledge on the topic?
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Writing – Prepare Researching the topic –Keep track of your research using file folders and note cards Assemble topical file folders to collect notes, articles, information Use note cards with one main idea per card, in your own words or quoted Put source information on each card
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Writing – Organize Construct an outline and be willing to change it –Write down possible subtopics, and then order them –Determine how to fill out the subtopics into a complete presentation of information Develop the paper’s structure –ABBCC structure Argument or thesis of paper Background of topic Body Counterarguments Conclusion
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Writing – Work Writing the actual paper becomes easier if the previous steps are followed –Research notes will help explain ideas along the way –Your outline will provide major headings Spread out the number of pages to write over many days Writing the first draft –It becomes easier as you get into it –Start wherever you like –Turn off the inner critic –Get into a rhythm and go with it before stopping to edit –Change your outline, if needed –Use your own writing “voice”
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Writing – Work Revising your draft –Now is the time to turn on your inner critic –Read your writing out loud –Ask broad questions of your paper to ensure you –Be ruthless in deleting, rewriting, and changing your paper –Check punctuation and spelling –Ensure that your quotes and information are cited correctly –Make it pleasing to the eye Formatting is important! Quality of appearance should match the quality of the writing
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Writing – Evaluate Critique your paper –Does it accomplish what you set out to do? –Does it fit the requirements of the assignment? –Check the mechanical aspects of the paper –Have someone else read it before you submit it
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Writing – Rethink Rethink the message –Does your writing convey what you want it to convey? Rethink the mechanics –Look at your writing style again to ensure your grammar, punctuation, citations, and formatting are all as they should be Rethink the method –How well did your process work? –What can you do differently next time to improve the method?
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Academic Honesty and Plagiarism No greater academic sin than plagiarism Penalties for plagiarism are severe Plagiarism is usually detected Plagiarism is wrong – don’t do it Avoiding plagiarism –Always note your sources –Don’t use a single source –When using something word-for-word, quote it and cite it, even in your notes –Be careful when paraphrasing to not just change a few words, but completely rewrite the passage in your own words –Always cite passages you have paraphrased
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Speaking Your Mind Most people are more afraid of public speaking than dying –Remember the audience is sympathetic –Being nervous is normal –It gets easier once you start –Practice helps
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Speaking Your Mind Prepare –Consider your audience and prepare what you will say and when you will say it Organize –Use note cards with main ideas Work –Speak clearly and calmly while avoiding distracting mannerisms Evaluate –Consider your performance and ask others for their input Rethink –Consider your whole approach to your speech and what changes you need to make for next time
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Meeting the Challenge of Public Speaking The first minute counts! –Begin with anecdotes, quotes, make your audience curious, use humor Provide oral marking points –“To sum up…” Use your notes well –Become very comfortable with what they say –Memorize only your opening and closing. Use your outline or note cards for the rest Use visual aids
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Meeting the Challenge of Public Speaking How you practice is as important as how much you practice –Practice in front of a friend or classmate –Get through your speech well at least twice in front of someone else Fight stage fright –Wear comfortable clothing that gives you confidence –Breath slowly and calmly a few minutes before you are to speak –Visualize yourself giving a great speech! Monitor nonverbal behavior –Stand up straight and tall –Look directly at your audience
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Impromptu Speaking Know the PREP formula –Point of view Share your point of view on the topic –Reasons Share main reasons why your position is correct –Evidence of Examples Give specific evidence to support your point of view –Point of view, restated Restate your point of view
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