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Guidelines for writing a SUMMARY. A summary A summary is condensed version of a larger reading. A summary is not a rewrite of the original text and does.

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Presentation on theme: "Guidelines for writing a SUMMARY. A summary A summary is condensed version of a larger reading. A summary is not a rewrite of the original text and does."— Presentation transcript:

1 Guidelines for writing a SUMMARY

2 A summary A summary is condensed version of a larger reading. A summary is not a rewrite of the original text and does not have to be long nor should it be long. To write a summary, use your own words to express briefly the main idea and relevant details of the text you have read.

3 A summary The purpose of a summary is to give the reader, in about 1/3 of the original length of a text, a clear, objective picture of it and to give the basic ideas of the original reading: what was it about and what did the author want to communicate? Most importantly, the summary restates only the main points of a text.

4 Skills practiced: Note-taking, paraphrasing (using your own words and sentence structure). While reading the original work, take notes of what or who is the focus. Ask the usual questions that reporters use: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Using these questions to examine what you are reading can help you to write the summary.

5 Writing your summary Steps: Before writing the summary: o Highlight the topic sentence o Highlight key points/key words/phrases o Highlight the concluding sentence o Outline each paragraph in the margin o Take notes on the main idea of the original, the major supporting points and explanations

6 Before writing the summary: Sometimes, the central idea of the text is stated in the introduction or first paragraph, and the supporting ideas of this central idea are presented one by one in the following paragraphs. Always read the introductory paragraph thoughtfully and look for a master statement. Frequently, however, the central idea, is implied or suggested. Pay attention to the title and any headings and to the opening and closing lines of paragraphs.

7 Writing your summary Steps: Writing the summary: Organize your notes into an outline which includes main ideas and supporting points. The main idea or argument needs to be included in this first sentence. Then mention the major aspects/factors/reasons that are discussed in the text. Discuss each supporting point in a separate sentence. Give 1-2 explanations for each supporting point, summarizing the information from the original.

8 Writing the summary: Support your topic sentence with the necessary reasons or arguments raised by the author. Write an introductory paragraph that begins with an outline including introducing the main idea. Use discourse markers that reflect the organization and controlling idea of the original: cause-effect, comparison-contrast, classification, process, chronological order, persuasive argument, etc.

9 Reporting verbs argue, claim, contend, maintain, insist, state, report, explain, discuss, illustrate, observe, recommend, argue against… In paraphrasing, use some of the reporting verbs like:

10 Sentence connectors Use sentence connectors like: accordingly, along with, as an example, as opposed to, consequently, either … or, evidently, for example, for the purpose of, generally speaking, however, in accordance with, in contrast, in such a way that, moreover, namely, not only but, once, that is why, thus, unlike

11 Remember: Do not rewrite the original piece. Keep your summary short. Use your own wording. Refer to the central and main ideas of the original piece. Read with who, what, when, where, why and how questions in mind. Do not put in your opinion of the issue or topic discussed in the original text.


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