-By the end of this lecture, students will have a general overview on the contents of Biochemistry course. - As well as some basics of Biochemistry Intended Learning Outcomes
Biochemistry can be defined as the science concerned with the chemical basis of life (Greek bios “life”). Since cells are the structural units of living systems. Thus, biochemistry can also be described as the science concerned with the chemical constituents of living cells and with the reactions and they undergo. Because life depends on biochemical reactions, biochemistry has become the basic language of all biologic sciences.
Biochemistry was launched by German chemist Carl Alexander Neuberg (father of Biochemistry) in 1903
The Aim of Biochemistry The major aim of biochemistry is the complete understanding, at the molecular level, of all of the chemical processes associated with living cells. To achieve this objective, biochemists have sought to isolate the numerous molecules found in cells, determine their structures, and analyze how they function.
Around 25 of the 94 naturally occurring chemical elements are essential to various kinds of biological life. Just six elements— carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus—make up almost 99% of the mass of a human cells. Life on earth depends on the chemical element carbon, which is present in every living thing. Starting materials: elements of life
Biochemistry is concerned with the entire spectrum of life forms, from relatively simple viruses and bacteria to complex human beings. A sound knowledge of biochemistry and of other related basic disciplines is essential for the rational practice of medical and related health sciences.
Perhaps All Disease Has a Biochemical Basis. Knowledge of the biochemical molecules shown in the top part of the diagram has clarified our understanding of the diseases shown in the bottom half—and conversely, analyses of the diseases shown below have cast light on many areas of biochemistry Examples of the two-way street connecting biochemistry and medicine
Biomolecules of life There are 4 classes of biomolecules to be studied in this biochemistry course: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins. 3. Lipids 4. Nucleic acids Biomolecules are polymers: in this terminology, monomers are relatively small micromolecules that are linked together to create large macromolecules, which are known as polymers.
Carbohydrates are made from monomers called monosaccharides. Some of these monosaccharides include glucose (C6H12O6), fructose (C6H12O6), and deoxyribose (C5H10O4)
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for living organisms and are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Chlorophyll in plants absorbs light energy from the sun. This energy is used in the process of photosynthesis, which allows green plants to take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen and allows for the production of carbohydrates. Plants transform carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the air, water (H 2 O) from the ground, and energy from the sun into oxygen (O 2 ) and carbohydrates.
Humans and other animals obtain carbohydrates by eating foods that contain them. In order to use the energy contained in the carbohydrates, humans must metabolize, or break down, the structure of the molecule in a process that is opposite that of photosynthesis. It starts with the carbohydrate and oxygen and produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy. The body utilizes the energy and water and rids itself of the carbon dioxide.
carbohydrates serve as energy source. ribose and deoxyribose sugars form part of of RNA and DNA. polysaccharides are structural elements in the cell carbohydrates are linked to many proteins and lipids, where they play key roles in mediating.