Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates Lab 6. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). Usually found 1C:2H:1O. Usually grouped as."— Presentation transcript:
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). Usually found 1C:2H:1O. Usually grouped as H-C-OH. Function as structural elements and as a source of chemical energy (ex. glucose).
Carbohydrates Plants use water (H 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) along with solar energy to manufacture carbohydrates in the process of photosynthesis. 6CO 2 +6H 2 O light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Carbon Dioxide WaterGlucoseOxygen Life depends on this reaction – it is the starting point for the formation of food.
Carbohydrates Three classes of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides – simple sugars Disaccharides – double sugars Polysaccharides – complex sugars
Monosaccharides Monosaccharides – Single carbon chain 4-6 carbons. Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 Can be straight chain or a ring.
Disaccharides Disaccharides – Two simple sugars bonded together. Water released Sucrose = glucose + fructose Lactose = glucose + galactose
Polysaccharides Polysaccharides – Many simple sugars bonded together in long chains. Starch is the common polymer in which sugar is usually stored in plants. Glycogen is an important polymer for storing sugar in animals. Found in liver and muscle cells – can be converted to glucose when needed. Cellulose is the main structural carbohydrate in plants.