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Ebonie J..  Cell membrane: the outside layer that determines what goes in and what goes out of the cell  Cell wall: mostly in plant cells, covers the.

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Presentation on theme: "Ebonie J..  Cell membrane: the outside layer that determines what goes in and what goes out of the cell  Cell wall: mostly in plant cells, covers the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ebonie J.

2  Cell membrane: the outside layer that determines what goes in and what goes out of the cell  Cell wall: mostly in plant cells, covers the outside of the cell and acts as protection  Cytoplasm: the jelly-like substance floating in the cell  Vacuole: acts as a storage tank for food, wastes, and water  Mitochondrion: acts as the powerhouse of the cell  Endoplasmic Reticulum: transports things around the cell  Nucleus: the control center or brain of the cell  Chloroplast: contains chlorophyll Similarities between plant and animal cells  Plant and animal cells both have membranes, cytoplasm, vacuoles, mitochondrion, and an endoplasmic reticulum, but animal cells don’t have cell walls or chloroplasts.

3 Cell wall Cytoplasm Cell membrane Vacuole Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane ER Mitochondrion Golgi Bodies Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Vacuole Mitochondrion ER Golgi Bodies

4 1. All living things are composed of cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of function and structure of living things 3. All cells come from other cells ScientistDiscovery Cell Theory Robert Hooke Looked at cork; noticed boxes like cells 1 and 2 Anton van Leeuwenhoek Viewed animalcules; first to see bacteria 1 and 2 Matthias SchleidenConcluded all plant parts are made up of cells 1 and 2 Rudolf VischowCells come from existing cells 3

5  What is the difference between passive and active transport? Passive is when the molecules travel from a higher concentrated area to lower one through different pressures, but active is the same without the pressures.  Mitosis  Interphase  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase  Mitosis is asexual, but meiosis is sexual.

6  Unicellular: single-celled, one cell  Multicellular: more than one cell  Respiration: the process of breathing  Digestion: breaking down food  Excretion: waste  Growth: how an organism develops into a adult  Reproduction: to produce more of oneself  Active Transport: molecules going from higher to lower concentration  Passive Transport: molecules going from higher to lower concentration with different pressures

7 1. Cells 2. Tissues 3. Organs 4. Organ System 5. Organism

8 Define osmosis: Osmosis is when a big molecule travels from high concentration to low concentration. Describe what is happening in the picture above: The solute is passing through the barrier and going into a lower concentrated area Define diffusion: Diffusion is when molecules spread or dissolve from a high concentrated area to a lower one. Describe what is happening in the picture above: The red molecules are spreading or dissolving from a high concentrated area to a lower one.

9  DNA – contains your genetic make-up  Gene – a specific trait  Allele – pairs of genes  Homozygous – pure genotype  Heterozygous – different genotype  Chromosome – made up of DNA  Phenotype – your genes appearance  Genotype – the letters of your genes  Dominant – the capital letter in a genotype  Recessive – the lower-case letter in a genotype  Hybrid – different genotype (heterozygous)

10  DNA is coded instruction that store and pass genetic information from one generation to the next.  DNA rungs are made of four sets of nitrogen bases and a backbone of phosphate and sugar.  Nitrogen Bases  Adenine - Thymine  Thymine - Adenine  Cytosine - Guanine  Guanine – Cytosine

11  Mendel – father of genetics  Watson & Crick – created the 1 st model of DNA; won the Nobel prize  Wilkins & Franklin – took pictures of DNA

12  2 possible phenotypes – yellow and green  3 possible genotypes – YY Yy yy  Yy – heterozygous YY, yy – homozygous  YY, Yy – dominant/ yy – recessive GreenYellow 2:4 50% ½ 2:4 50% ½ YYYyyy 0% 0 2:4 50% ½ 2:4 50% ½

13  Taxonomic key: statements that describe the physical characteristics of an organism  Dichotomous key: a key that categorizes species  Phototroprism: an organism’s response to light  Eutrophication: rich nutrients in a lake  Succession: predictable changes in a community  Dormancy: a state of quiet  Hibernation: a state of greatly reduced body activity in the winter

14  Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti

15  Pisum sativamRana hexadactyla  Mangifera indicaFelis domestica  Ficus bengalensisCanis familiaris  Glycine maxNaja naja  The genus is in yellow and the species is underlined

16 AnimalPhylum Snail Mollusk Fish Chordate Earthworm Annelids Anemone Cnidarians Frog Chordate Jellyfish Cnidarians Starfish Echinoderms Alligator Chordate Crayfish Chordate Ant Arthopods Elephant Chordate Coral Cnidarian

17 1. Mosses – club moss 2. Ferns – Silver fern 3. Conifer – pine tree 4. Flowering plants - tulips

18 Archaebacteria Unicellular/multicellular Prokaryote/eukaryote Heterotroph/autotroph Asexual/sexual Aquatic/terrestrial/air Motile/non-motile Eubacteria Unicellular/multicellular Prokaryote/eukaryote Heterotroph/autotroph Asexual/sexual Aquatic/terrestrial/air Motile/non-motile Protista Unicellular/multicellular Prokaryote/eukaryote Heterotroph/autotroph Asexual/sexual Aquatic/terrestrial/air Motile/non-motile Fungi Unicellular/multicellular Prokaryote/eukaryote Heterotroph/autotroph Asexual/sexual Aquatic/terrestrial/air Motile/non-motile Plant Unicellular/multicellular Prokaryote/eukaryote Heterotroph/autotroph Asexual/sexual Aquatic/terrestrial/air Motile/non-motile Animal Unicellular/multicellular Prokaryote/eukaryote Heterotroph/autotroph Asexual/sexual Aquatic/terrestrial/air Motile/non-motile

19  Photosynthesis is the foundation of all food webs.  Equation for photosynthesis  Reactants: carbon dioxide, water  Products: carbohydrates, oxygen

20  Producer: an organism that makes it’s own food  Consumer: an organism that doesn’t make it’s own food  Decomposer: an organism that breaks down dead organisms  Heterotroph: an organism that eats other things  Autotroph: an organism that makes it’s food

21 Condensation Precipitation Evaporation Sun Ocean Evaporation: when the water turns into water vapor and starts floating upward Condensation: when the vapor turns into clouds Precipitation: the water falls from the clouds

22 In this cycle, the regular carbon is being turned into alternative fuel by grounding corn.

23

24  Producer: grass  1 st consumer: ant  2 nd consumer: spider  What is the difference between a food chain and a food web?  A food chain only maps 1 path, but a food web shows more than 1 path.

25 Owl Snake Mouse Grass

26 1. B Herbivore 2. E Carnivore 3. C Decomposer 4. D Omnivore 5. A Producer 6. F Consumers  A. an organism that can use sunlight in order to produce its own food (autotroph) B. an organism that only eats producers C. an organism that breaks down dead or decaying organisms D. an organism that will eat producers and consumers E. an organism that will only eat other consumers F. an organism that eats in order to obtain energy (heterotroph)

27  Competition: struggle for limited resources  Cooperation: working together  Social hierarchy: the chain of importance within a species  Territorial imperative: to claim or defend a territory  Niche: an organism’s role in an ecosystem  Predator: a carnivore that hunts animals for food  Prey: the animal that the predator hunts  Parasite: an organism that lives on and harms the host  Host: a organism that provides a source of energy for a virus

28  A. Commensalism – one animal benefits and the other is not helped or harmed  B. Mutualism – both partners benefit from living together  C. Parasitism – one organism live on another harming the other  B 1. Plover bird gets food by acting as a toothpick for a crocodile.  A 2. The cattle egret eats the insects that are escaping as cattle graze in the field.  C 3. A tick sucks the blood from a deer.  C 4. A tapeworm in a dog gains energy from the dog but the dog loses nutrition due to the tapeworm.  B 5. Ostriches and zebras move together to warn each other of impending danger because the ostrich sees well and the zebra hears well.

29  Eutrophication: buildup over time of nutrients  *phototropism: organism’s response to light  *community: all the different populations in one area  *population: all the members of one species in one area  *biome: a group of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms  *ecosystem: all the living and nonliving things that interact in an area  *adaptation: a characteristic that helps an organism survive  *permafrost: soil that is frozen all year  *taiga: a swampy coniferous forest  *canopy: a leafy roof formed by tall trees  *deciduous: a tree that sheds it’s leaves annually  *nocturnal: active at night

30 Whale BClouds AFinger nails B Clock ACorpse BPipe A Water ASnail BCotton fabric A Fish BSteak AWool A Paper APork chops AGold A Glass ASalad APlastic A Aluminum ABread AGrapes B Wooden ruler APlant BAir A Sand AHair A

31  Shape of bird beaks: physical  Type of arms or legs: structural  Color of fur or feathers: structural  Shape of facial features (nose, eyes, ears): physical  Physical, Behavioral, and Structural

32 FreshwaterMarine Rivers and Streams trout, catfish, carp, algae Shorelines black mussels, barnacles, algae, moss Ponds and Lakes algae, clams, snails, dragon flies Temperate oceans plankton, whales, salmon, hagfish Wetlands pond lilies, cattails, shrimp, shellfish, ducks Tropical oceans Clown fish, blue marlin, green turtle, hammerhead

33 Tundra Temperature: ice cold Rainfall: 10 in. per year Plants: cotton grass, lichen Animals: polar bear, penguin Terms: permafrost Movie: Happy Feet Coniferous Forest Temperature: below 0 ½ of the yr. Rainfall: 30 in. per year Plants: pine tree, needles Animals: beaver, moose, rabbit Terms: conifer, taiga Movie: Brother Bear Deciduous Forest Temperature: seasons Rainfall: falls throughout the year Plants: willow tree Animals: raccoon, turkey, bear Terms: deciduous Movie: Pocahontas Rainforest Temperature: mild, humid Rainfall: lots of rain Plants: vines, mangroves Animals: gorilla, vine snake Terms: canopy Movie: Tarzan Grasslands or Savannah Temperature: hot summers Rainfall: in. per year Plants: blazingstar, coneflower Animals: lions, elephants Terms: Movie: Lion King Desert Temperature: hot Rainfall: 10 in. per year Plants: cactus, dragon tree Animals: rats, bats, vultures Terms: nocturnal Movie: Aladdin

34  *mutation: a change in a gene or chromosome  *adaptation: a characteristic that helps an organism survive  *natural selection : The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce  *extinction: a disappeared species from earth  *fossil record: fossils scientists have collected  *variation: difference between organisms of a different species  *dormancy: as if in a deep sleep  *hibernation: greatly reduced body activity during winter

35  1. You flinch when a dodge ball is thrown towards you.  2. A doctor hits your knee and you kick your leg.  3. Your mom wakes you up by turning on the lights in your room.  4. You whistle at your dogs and they run towards you.  5. You are hyper because you drank a soda at lunch.

36  T-Temperature, all organisms need to be at a proper temperature  O-Oxygen, animals need oxygen to go through respiration  W-Water, needed to dissolve and transport substances  E-Energy, all organisms need energy  L-Living space, provides amount of water, food, and energy

37  Digestion: breaking down food for energy  Respiration: gas exchange  Nutrition: intake of food for energy  Excretion: elimination of wastes  Reproduction: producing more of oneself  Develop: change over time

38  *prediction: an educated guess based on what you know  *inference: guess about why you think an observation happens  *experiment: a test to answer a question  *hypothesis: a prediction of what will happen in an experiment  *independent variable: the thing that effects the dependent  *dependent variable: what happens after an experiment  *variable: anything that can change during an experiment  *control: the thing that is important  *constant: the thing that stays the same  *repeated trials: an experiment tested repeatedly  *mean: the average  *median: the middle number  *mode: the most numbers in a number sequence

39 1. State the Problem 2. Research 3. Hypothesis 4. Experiment 5. Collect Data 6. Analyze Data 7. Conclusion 8. Share/Publish

40   5 cm 32 cm 53.7 cm   1) How big is a horsefly if 1 cm = 1m? 5 m  2) How big is the ghost if 1 cm = 20 cm? 640 cm  3) How big is the kitty if 1 cm = 10 cm? 537

41 Type: Bar Graph Use: to display information Type: Histogram Use: to display # information Type: Line Graph Use: to display progress Type: Pie Graph Use: to show percent

42  1. If an object has a mass of 25 grams and a  volume of 5 mL, what is its density? 5  2. What is the volume of a 2 cm cube? 8 cm

43  1) 50 kg = (50,000,000) mg  2) 200 g = (20,000) cg  3) 72 L = (72,000) mL  4) daK = () dK  5) 60 s = (60,000) ms

44  1) 9.87 x 10 5 = 987, 000  2) 2.09 x =  3) 9,243,000 = x 10(6)  4) = 4.945x10(-5)

45 Name: Thermometer Measures: temperature Units: F, C Name: Graduated Cylinder Measures: Volume Units: Liters, mililiters Name: Triple beam balance Measures: Mass Units: Grams Name: Ruler Measures: Length Units: Inches, cm


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