3Landscape: rocky and sandy Climate: hot and dry DesertLandscape: rocky and sandyClimate: hot and dryDominant plant life: cactus, small shrubsDominant animal life: reptiles, birds, rodents, sheepMain feature: dry
5Landscape: treeless plain Climate: extremely cold and dry TUNDRALandscape: treeless plainClimate: extremely cold and dryDominant plant life: small grasses, shrubsDominant animal life: caribou, birds, fox, owls, lemmingsMain feature: frozen soil most of the year
9Landscape: trees – near equator Climate: hot and very wet Tropical rain forestLandscape: trees – near equatorClimate: hot and very wetDominant plant life: large trees, vinesDominant animal life: monkeys, insects, mammals,frogs, birds, reptiles
25An ECOSYSTEM is thetotal community of living organisms in a particular area plus the nonliving factors of the environment.
26A BIOME includes any ecosystems found in a regional area A BIOME includes any ecosystems found in a regional area. (For example, one geographic area may contain a freshwater pond, as well as wetland swamps, and a deciduous forest, that all interact in the given region making up a biome.)
27BIOTIC factors of an ecosystem are all of its living components. ABIOTIC factors are the nonliving components of the ecosystem.
28A TROPHIC LEVEL is the particular place an organism maintains in a food chain. A FOOD CHAIN is a simple representation of the trophic levels in order from producers through all levels of consumers, then decomposers.A FOOD WEB is an illustration of the complex interrelationships between all trophic levels where a particular organism may function in more than one trophic level.
29SECONDARY CONSUMERS, etc. PRODUCERS are the organisms in an ecosystem that harness energy (usually from the sun) and make it available as food to . . .PRIMARY CONSUMERS who get energy by feeding on producers. They then become a food source for . . .SECONDARY CONSUMERS, etc.DECOMPOSERS break down dead plant and animal material making the raw materials available for producers to reuse.
30Water cycles throughout ecosystems via evaporation, rain, runoff, etc. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES function to recycle nutrients throughout the ecosystem.Some examples. . .Plants use Carbon Dioxide for photosynthesis and produce Oxygen. The oxygen is used in animal respiration and Carbon Dioxide is produced.Water cycles throughout ecosystems via evaporation, rain, runoff, etc.Nitrogen and Carbon are released from dead organisms by decomposers so that they may be reused by producers and cycle throughout the food web.
31A NICHE is the function a particular organism performs in a given ecosystem.
33A: bacterial decomposers Which of the following would NOT be considered to be a biotic factor of a taiga ecosystem?A: bacterial decomposersB: deer and elkC: coniferous treesD: short summers
34In an aquatic marine ecosystem a killer whale feeds on krill (primary consumers), birds (third-level consumers), and penguins (fourth-level consumers). What would be the best way to illustrate these relationships?A: food webB: food chainC: photographsD: phylogenetic tree
35Which of the following would not commonly be found in a desert ecosystem? A: snakeB: bacteriaC: deciduous treeD: cactus
36A food chain showsA: the order of trophic levels of a particular ecosystem from producer to decomposerB: the complex web of interrelationships between many trophic levelsC: the development of plants from seed to adultD: the organisms that are not found in a given ecosystem
37A trophic level is A: an organism's place in the food web. B: an organism's dwelling place in an ecosystem.C: an organism's niche in an ecosystem.D: an aquatic organism's place in the water column
38In which ecosystem would you be most likely to find a coniferous tree? A: temperate rain forestB: tundraC: aquatic marineD: desert
39Which of the following most accurately describes the carbon dioxide/oxygen cycle in terrestrial biomes?A: plants produce oxygen and carbon dioxide that are used by animals in respirationB: plants use carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, while animals use oxygen and produce carbon dioxideC: animals produce carbon dioxide and oxygen which are used by plants in photosynthesisD: plants produce carbon dioxide and use oxygen, while animals produce oxygen and use carbon dioxide
40One abiotic factor of a tropical rain forest is A: large vinesB: parrotsC: abundant rainD: monkeys
41One important function of bacteria in an ecosystem is to A: build habitats for larger animalsB: kill lethal virusesC: recycle nitrogen from dead organisms back into the food webD: keep populations of large animals in check
42B: large deciduous trees C: insects (such as bees) Which of the following would be a producer in a temperate deciduous forest ecosystem?A: snailsB: large deciduous treesC: insects (such as bees)D: nutrient-rich soil