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L LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Representing the world
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 3. Objective: REPRESENTING THE WORLD know the metalanguage for describing language experiencemetalanguage have worked with a lot of practices in describing language experience ObjectiveObjective, Metafunction, Process, Circumstance, Modification, Field of the Discourse, AssignmentMetafunctionProcessCircumstanceModificationField of the DiscourseAssignment
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 METAFUNCTION Language perform three functions: Experiential function Experiential function Interpersonal function Textual function So language has three meanings: Experiential meaning Interpersonal meaning Textual meaning ObjectiveObjective, Metafunction, Process, Circumstance, Modification, Field of the Discourse, AssignmentMetafunctionProcessCircumstanceModificationField of the DiscourseAssignment
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Experiential function to encode our experience of the world; that is we use it to convey a picture of reality Human experience refers to: Thing or participant, realized by nominal groups or prepositional phrases and can interact with process through a variety of participant roles Event or process, realized by a verbal group (1, 2, 3)123 Circumstance, realized by adverbial groups, and prepositional phrases The outer edge is CONJUNCTION GROUPS which indicates the logical relationship in the system Figure ObjectiveObjective, Metafunction, Process, Circumstance, Modification, Field of the Discourse, AssignmentMetafunctionProcessCircumstanceModificationField of the DiscourseAssignment
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Experience functionExperience function in a clause Pattern 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 71234567
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 CP (1) Participant + Process He sneezed The President arrived Pattern 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 71234567 Figure Experiential function
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 CP (2) Participant + Process + Participant The water damaged the carpet The Premier congratulated them Pattern 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 71234567 Figure Experiential function
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 CP (3) Participant + Process + Circumstance The judicial system works slowly The President arrived by train Pattern 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 71234567 Figure Experiential function
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 CP (4) Participant + Process + Participant + Circumstance I thanked her warmly The snake bit her on the ankle Pattern 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 71234567 Figure Experiential function
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 CP (5) Process Stop! Run! Pattern 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 71234567 Figure Experiential function
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 CP (6) Participant + Process + Projected clause I forgot that it was her birthday Bill said that the system had stopped Pattern 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 71234567 Figure Experiential function
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 CP (7) Participant + Process + Participant + Projected clause The boss told the staff that the company made a profit Pattern 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 71234567 Figure Experiential function
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 ProcessesProcesses (1) Doing words: MATERIAL PROCESSES as in arrived and worked that encode experiences (actions and happenings) in the external material world, MATERIAL PROCESSES BEHAVIORAL PROCESSES as in sneezed and sang that encode physiological and psychological behavior and lie somewhere between material, mental or verbal processes BEHAVIORAL PROCESSES Figure Experiential function ObjectiveObjective, Metafunction, Process, Circumstance, Modification, Field of the Discourse, AssignmentMetafunctionProcessCircumstanceModificationField of the DiscourseAssignment
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 ProcessesProcesses (2) Thinking, feeling or saying words describe the inner world of cognition, perception, emotion, and desire and has the potential for projecting our inner world as thought or speech so that it can be apprehended by others. MENTAL PROCESSES as in remembered and overheard that encode experiences in the inner world of consciousness MENTAL PROCESSES VERBAL PROCESSES as in told and said that encode the experiences of bringing the inner world outside by speaking. VERBAL PROCESSES Figure Experiential function ObjectiveObjective, Metafunction, Process, Circumstance, Modification, Field of the Discourse, AssignmentMetafunctionProcessCircumstanceModificationField of the DiscourseAssignment
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 ProcessesProcesses (3) Being words: EXISTENTIAL PROCESSES as in are and was that encode the existence of a sole participant EXISTENTIAL PROCESSES RELATIONAL PROCESSES as in became, have, belongs, are, was that encode relationships of being and having between two participants RELATIONAL PROCESSES RELATIONAL ATTRIBUTIVE PROCESSES whose function is to ascribe an attribute RELATIONAL IDENTIFYING PROCESSES whose function is to identify. Figure Experiential function ObjectiveObjective, Metafunction, Process, Circumstance, Modification, Field of the Discourse, AssignmentMetafunctionProcessCircumstanceModificationField of the DiscourseAssignment
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Mat P and participant roles Material processes construe doing. Material processes They answer the question What did X do? or What happened? The potential participant roles are: ACTOR (the Doer of the process), GOAL (the Thing affected by the process), RANGE (the Thing unaffected by the process), and BENEFICIARY (the Recipient, the one who receives the outcome of the process or Client the one for whom the process is done). Figure Experiential function Example
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Mat PMat P: Example She felt the iron ActorMaterialGoal The cat was being chased by the naughty boy GoalMaterialActor He sent an email to a friend ActorMaterialGoalBeneficiary: Recipient I built a house for my mother ActorMaterialGoalBeneficiary: Client Bob is climbing the tree ActorMaterialRange
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Beh P and participant roles Behavioral processes construe physiological or psychological behavior. Behavioral processes The participant is: BEHAVER, the conscious being or personified thing. Behavioral process is the doing version of mental and verbal process. Range-like Participant known as BEHAVIOR. Figure Experiential function Example
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Beh PBeh P: example My fatherwatched the film BehaverBehavioralRange Bettycriedbitter tears BehaverBehavioralBehavior The volcano slept BehaverBehavioral (personification)
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Men P and participant roles Mental Processes encode the inner world of cognition, perception, inclination, or liking/disliking known as affect. Mental Processes The potential participant roles are: SENSER (the Doer of the process) and PHENOMENON, realized by a nominal group or embedded clause which sums up what is thought, wanted, perceived, or liked/disliked. Figure Experiential function Example
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Men PMen P: example Jessica likes ice cream SenserMental: affectPhenomenon Anie knows the answer SenserMental: cognitionPhenomenon Austin hears the ice cream truck coming SenserMental: PerceptionPhenomenon Henry wants an ice cream SenserMental: inclinationPhenomenon She wondered why she was tired SenserMentalProjected clause
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Ver P and participant roles Verbal processes construe saying. Verbal processes The potential participant roles are: SAYER (the Doer of the process), RECEIVER (addressee of the speech), TARGET (the participant which is the object of the talk), and VERBIAGE (what is said in the nominal group or embedded clause). Figure Experiential function Example
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Ver PVer P: example She said that she was tired Sayer Verbal Projected clause Stephanytold the secret to her boy friend SayerVerbalVerbiageReceiver She praised him SayerVerbalTarget
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Exi P and participant roles Existential processes construe the existence of a sole participant. Existential processes The only participant is EXISTENT Figure Experiential function Example
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Exi PExi P: example There’s a strange smell ExistentialExistent There are many problems ExistentialExistent
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Rel P and participant roles Relational processes construe the relationships of being and having. Relational processes RELATIONAL ATTRIBUTIVE PROCESSES whose function is to ascribe an attribute the participant carrying the attribute or characteristics is known as CARRIER and the characteristic is known as ATTRIBUTE RELATIONAL IDENTIFYING PROCESSES whose function is to identify. IDENTIFIED (the participant providing identity) and IDENTIFIER (the participant that identifies), TOKEN (the form) and VALUE (the function). Figure Experiential function Example 1, 212
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Rel PRel P: example 1 That notebook looks very light CarrierRelational AttributingAttribute My office is the room on the right IdentifiedRelational IdentifyingIdentifier Bob is a leader CarrierRelational AttributingAttribute Betty is the leader TokenRelational Identifying Value His house is on a hill CarrierRel Att Circumstantial Attribute: Circumstance
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Rel PRel P: example 2 His favorite placeis at the beach ValueRel Id CircumstantialToken Risma has a beautiful cat Carrier: PossessorRel Att PossessiveAttribute: Possessed The company is ownedby Bob Value: PossessedRel Id PossessiveToken: Possessor
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Circumstances any circumstantial information about the process within its own clause uses a prepositional phrase, an adverbial group, or even a nominal group and provides the audience where, or when, or how, or why, or with whom, or as what the process occurred. Example 1, 212 ObjectiveObjective, Metafunction, Process, Circumstance, Modification, Field of the Discourse, AssignmentMetafunctionProcessCircumstanceModificationField of the DiscourseAssignment
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 CircumstanceCircumstance: example 1 TYPES OF CIRCUMSTANCE ANSWERS THE QUESTIONEXAMPLES EXTENT How long? How far? How many times? (for) two hours (for) two miles five times a week LOCATION Where? When? in the yard after dinner CONTIGENCYIf what? in case of rain in spite of rain in the absence of fine weather CAUSEWhy? What for? because of the rain for a rest Example 1, 212
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 CircumstanceCircumstance: example 2 TYPES OF CIRCUMSTANCE ANSWERS THE QUESTIONEXAMPLES ACCOMPANIMENT With whom? And who else? But not who? with a friend as well as Henry instead of Michael MATTERWhat about?about suffering ROLEWhat as?as a clown MANNER means quality comparison How? With what? How? What like? by car with a stick quietly like a trooper ANGLEAccording to whom?to Mary according to Luke Example 1, 212
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Modification in nominal groups Modifying the head in nominal group as participant Premodification Premodification an old timber HOUSE those two magnificent cedar TREES a new white imported sports CAR a cruelly mutilated favorite ARTIST Postmodification the HOUSE on the hill the CAT that came hurtling down the road the GIRL without anything on the BOY that used to play with me ObjectiveObjective, Metafunction, Process, Circumstance, Modification, Field of the Discourse, AssignmentMetafunctionProcessCircumstanceModificationField of the DiscourseAssignment
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Types of premodificationpremodification TYPES OF PREMODIFICATIONEXAMPLES DEICTICS: point to, or in some way select, the noun functioning as thing. Articles Demonstratives Possessives A few non-specific pointers a, the this, that, these, those my, her, their, my father’s some, both, all NUMERATIVES: tell how many of the thing there are, or in what order they occur. Cardinal numbers Ordinal numbers one, three, a thousand first, second third EPITHETS: describe a quality of thing. Adjectiveyoung, red, exciting CLASSIFIERS: establish the thing as a member of a class Adjectives Noun acting as classifier Australian, financial, public cedar tree, car pool
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Field of the discourse In order to understand and represent the eventful world you need some metalanguages on clause as representation. They are as follows: Experiential domain: what the text is all about processes Participants circumstances Short term goal: the immediate purpose of the text’s production Long term goal: the text’s place in the larger scheme of things Step 1, 2, 3123ClueClue, F of DF of D ObjectiveObjective, Metafunction, Process, Circumstance, Modification, Field of the Discourse, AssignmentMetafunctionProcessCircumstanceModificationField of the DiscourseAssignment
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Clue The field of the discourse can be described by answering the question: What activity is taking place? Experiential meanings of Processes, Participants and Circumstances provide the answer. Step 1, 2, 3123ClueClue, F of DF of D
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Segmenting text (step 1) O.K, I want you to go over And get the ball…. Now sit down there…. Sit down over there…. Now roll it Roll it over to Tiffany And she’ll push it back to you There you go (LAUGHTER) And back again (LAUGHTER) Oh not too hard (WARNING) You’ll hurt her There you go (LAUGHTER) Oh! O.K, pick it up And throw it … like that Oh (DISMAY) Go And get it Step 1, 2, 3123ClueClue, F of DF of D
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Diagram: analysis (step2) Experiential meaningsFIELD OF DISCOURSECommentary Process types: mainly material – go, get, roll, pick up, throw, push, sit Participants: Actor: the addressee, Tiffany Goal: the ball Circumstances place: over there manner: like that As a result of our analysis and knowledge of context of culture we can write up our description Experiential domain: Two children learning to roll a ball back and forth Short-term goal: teaching how to play the game gently Long-term goal: Teaching reciprocity (mutual behavior) of interaction Maintenance of family roles Step 1, 2, 3123ClueClue, F of DF of D
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Describing context: (step 3) Experiential domain (what the text is all about) Material Processes (mostly) Participants: you or addressee, ball Circumstances: where and manner (how) Short term goal (the immediate purpose of text’s production) Two children learning to roll a ball back and forth Teaching how to play the game gently Long term goal (the text’s larger scheme) Teaching reciprocity of interaction Maintenance of family roles Step 1, 2, 3123ClueClue, F of DF of D
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Assignment What is ‘experiential meaning’? Explain each type of processes and elaborate each of them with examples. Find a text, break it down into its clauses and put the clauses into the transitivity system (pattern) ObjectiveObjective, Metafunction, Process, Circumstance, Modification, Field of the Discourse, AssignmentMetafunctionProcessCircumstanceModificationField of the DiscourseAssignment
LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 THANK YOU
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