Presentation on theme: "Analysing English Grammar Workshop. outline n Where to begin the analysis n Relationship between FUNCTION and FORM n Experiential Meaning n Interpersonal."— Presentation transcript:
outline n Where to begin the analysis n Relationship between FUNCTION and FORM n Experiential Meaning n Interpersonal Meaning
(multi)functional elements of the clause n Each clause expresses simultaneously 3 main strands of meaning n Each of these strands expresses meaning through different functions –Elements of the clause n Simultaneous analysis is impossible for the analyst –We have to impose an order
Where do we start? n IFG (Halliday, 2004): 1.Textual (clause as message) 2.Interpersonal (clause as exchange) 3.Experiential (clause as representation) n Bloor & Bloor (2004): 1.Interpersonal 2.Textual 3.Experiential n Thompson (2004): 1.Interpersonal 2.Experiential 3.Textual n Me? 1.Experiential 2.Interpersonal 3.Textual
Function and form Structural units Verbal group Nominal group Adverbial group Functional Elements Process Participants Circumstances This is only the most common correlation, other groups can be found for these functions
See handout for tables of Participants and Circumstances
ProcessParticipantsExample MaterialActor, Goal, Beneficiary, Scope, Initiator, Attribute John [Actor] hit the ball [Goal] John [Actor] gave the ball [Goal] to Jane [Beneficiary] John [Initiator] made her [Actor] eat John [Actor] swept the room [Goal] clean [Attribute] MentalSenser, PhenomenonJohn [Senser] likes Jane [¨Phenomenon] Relational Attrib.Carrier, AttributeJohn [Carrier] is nice [Attribute] Ident.Identifier, IdentifiedJohn [Identified] is the lawyer [Identifier] VerbalSayer, Receiver, Verbiage John [Sayer] told me [Recipient] a story [Verbiage] ExistentialExistentThere was a lake [Existent] BehaviouralBehaverJohn [Behaver] is laughing
Circumstantial elements n optional elements of the clause n peripheral n not directly involved in the process n occur 'freely' in all types of processes (in theory) n for Halliday, they do not have the potential of becoming Subjects participants are "inherent" in the process
Type question answeredexample Extent how far? how long? How frequently? He ran three miles [Circ.:Extent:distance]. He ran for three days [Circ.:Extent:duration] He ran every day [Circ.:Extent:frequency] Location where? when? He ran in [Circ.: location: place] He ran last year [Circ.: location: time] Manner by what means? how? like what? How much? He saved her with a rope [Circ.: manner: means] She saved him quickly [Circ.: manner: quality] She ran like the wind [Circ.: manner: comparison] Cause why? for what purpose? on whose behalf? She ran because she loved to [Circ.: cause:reason] She ran to raise money [Circ.: cause:purpose] She ran for her sister [Circ.: cause:behalf] Conting. under what conditions?In the event of fire [Circ.: contingency] leave the building Accomp. who/what with? Who/what else? John ran with Jane [Circ.: accompaniment] John wears mittens in addition to his gloves [Circ.: accompaniment] Role what as? what into? She spoke as his mentor [Circ.: role:guise] He was transformed into a prince [Circ.: role] Matter what about?He warned me about the film [Circ.: matter] Angle according to whom? from whose viewpoint/perspective? According to the lecturer [Circ.: angle:source], the class is cancelled To me [Circ.: angle:viewpoint], hes an idiot.
identification (labelling) via patterns interpretation (discourse analysis) of process types of participants of circumstances what are the dominant process types? why these? how do the types match with other aspects (e.g. location in the text, appearing in commands vs. statements, etc.)? what (groupings of) participants are there? how do these compare with 'real world' entities and events? what kinds of participants (e.g. concrete vs. abstract)? what transitivity role(s) do they have? what types of circumstances are included, where in the text? what gets expressed as circumstances rather than in the 'nucleus' (process + participant)? Source: Thompson, 2004, p. 127 Patterns in Transitivity
Function and form Structural units Nominal Group Temporal Verbal Operator Modal Verbal Operator Functional Elements Subject Finite
The Mood System Source: Thompson p. 58 mood indicative imperative wh- yes/no interrogative declarative exclamative non-exclamative wh-subj wh-non-subj suggestive regular imperative marked unmarked
Labelling Interpersonal Meaning n Identify the Subject n Identify the Finite element n Find any Polarity markers and Modal Adjuncts n Determine the mood based on the relationship between Subject and Finite n Label what is left: Complement (will match onto a Participant, Adjunct (will match onto a Circumstance) n Determine the role of the clause in the exchange
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