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L LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Element underlying FG.

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Presentation on theme: "L LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Element underlying FG."— Presentation transcript:

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2 L LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Element underlying FG

3 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji© Objectives: elements underlying FG  know why you learn functional grammar  understand the relation between text and context  understand how language is realized in its levels  explain the function of language ObjectiveObjective, Element FG, Discussing context, Text, Functions of L, Spoken-written L, L levelsElement FGDiscussing contextTextFunctions of LSpoken-written LL levels

4 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Elements Underlying FG  Context:  Language changes according to different situations: Ideational/experiential meaning Interpersonal meaning Textual meaning  Drive to change intuitive knowledge to linguistic knowledge of FG E1E1, E2, E3, E4, clue,E2E3E4clue context ObjectiveObjective, Element FG, Discussing context, Text, Functions of L, Spoken-written L, L levelsElement FGDiscussing contextTextFunctions of LSpoken-written LL levels

5 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Clues to discussing context  What activity is taking place?  Who is speaking?  Who is being spoken to?  What sort of social distance is there between them?  Is the relationship between them equal or unequal?  Are any items in the expression positively or negatively appraised?  What are the appraisal motifs?  Do we know where the activity is taking place?  Is the expression interactive or not?  How could we summarize the main tone or thrust of the text?  Is the expression originally spoken or written?  Does language constitute the whole of the activity or is it helping some other activity along? E1E1, E2, E3, E4, clue,E2E3E4clue context ObjectiveObjective, Element FG, Discussing context, Text, Functions of L, Spoken-written L, L levelsElement FGDiscussing contextTextFunctions of LSpoken-written LL levels

6 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Expression 1: what is the context like?  “You’re interesting to me. I’d like to get to know you better, and we can see where this goes.” E1E1, E2, E3, E4, clue,E2E3E4clue context

7 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Expression 2: what is the context like?  Thanks a lot for your site. It helped me with my homework. I am from Australia and I am in 3 rd grade but right now I am living in France. E1E1, E2, E3, E4, clue,E2E3E4clue context

8 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Expression 3: what is the context like?  SHUT UP!! I am fed up! E1E1, E2, E3, E4, clue,E2E3E4clue context

9 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Expression 4: what is the context like?  Perhaps one of the most interesting words in the English language today is the word fuck. It is a magical English word that begins with the letter f and can describe a situation such as fraud, trouble, aggression, difficulty, inquiry, dissatisfaction, incompetence, pain, pleasure, hate, and love. Look at these examples: I got fuck with that used car a lot; I guess I am really fucked now; Don’t fuck with me buddy; I don’t understand this fucking question; What’s the fuck with that? I don’t like with the fuck going on here; He’s a fucker. Fuck is derived from a German word FRICHEN which means to strike. In English the word fuck falls in dramatic grammatical categories. As a transitive verb, for instance, John fucked Chirly. As an intransitive verb Chirly fucks. Its meaning is not always sexual. It can be used as an adjective, John’s doing all the fucking work; as part of an adverb, Chirly talked too fucking much; as an adverb enhancing an adjective, Chirly is fucking beautiful; as a noun I don’t need a fuck. So you can use this flexible word more often in your daily speech. Say it loudly and proudly FUCK YOU. E1E1, E2, E3, E4, clue,E2E3E4clue context

10 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Figure: text in contexttext ObjectiveObjective, Element FG, Discussing context, Text, Functions of L, Spoken-written L, L levelsElement FGDiscussing contextTextFunctions of LSpoken-written LL levels

11 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Text  A text is a functional language (Halliday and Hasan 1985)  texture—the way the meaning in the text fit coherently with each other and structure  CONTEXT OF CULTURE CONTEXT OF CULTURE  CONTEXT OF SITUATION CONTEXT OF SITUATION Illustration text1Illustration text1, Illustration text2Illustration text2 Figure ObjectiveObjective, Element FG, Discussing context, Text, Functions of L, Spoken-written L, L levelsElement FGDiscussing contextTextFunctions of LSpoken-written LL levels

12 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Illustration text one  emaké illustration text1illustration text1, illustration text2, text, figureillustration text2textfigure

13 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Illustration text two  work in pairs, search in different places, and report to me every hour, do it, dismiss. illustration text1illustration text1, illustration text2, text, figureillustration text2textfigure

14 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Context of culture  Genre  Class of communicative events, the members of which share some set of communicative purposes FigureFigure, TextText

15 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Context of situation  Within the context of culture, speakers and writers use language in different contexts of situation:  FIELD,  TENOR,  MODE OF THE DISCOURSE. Figure1Figure1, Figure2, TextFigure2Text

16 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Figure: context of situationcontext of situation

17 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Function of language  METAFUNCTIONS  To talk about what is happening, what will happen, and what has happened  To interact and/or to express a point of view  To turn the output of the previous two functions into a coherent whole  Halliday (1994):  IDEATIONAL METAFUNCTION uses language to represent experience. This indicates the ideational/ experiential meaning.  INTERPERSONAL METAFUNCTION uses language to encode interaction and thus expresses interpersonal meaning.  TEXTUAL METAFUNCTION uses language to organize our experiential and interpersonal meanings into a coherent spoken or written language. ObjectiveObjective, Element FG, Discussing context, Text, Functions of L, Spoken-written L, L levelsElement FGDiscussing contextTextFunctions of LSpoken-written LL levels

18 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Spoken and written language  Spoken language: Written language:  turn-taking organization monologic organization  context dependent context independent  dynamic structure synoptic structure  -interactive staging -rhetorical staging  -open-ended -closed, finite  spontaneity phenomena“final draft” (polished)  (false start, hesitations, indications of earlier drafts  interruptions, overlap, removed  incomplete clauses)  everyday lexis“prestige” lexis  non-standard grammar standard grammar  grammatical complexity grammatical simplicity  Lexically sparse Lexically dense ObjectiveObjective, Element FG, Discussing context, Text, Functions of L, Spoken-written L, L levelsElement FGDiscussing contextTextFunctions of LSpoken-written LL levels

19 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Levels of language ObjectiveObjective, Element FG, Discussing context, Text, Functions of L, Spoken-written L, L levelsElement FGDiscussing contextTextFunctions of LSpoken-written LL levels

20 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Assignment  In order to be able to linguistically (not just intuitively) respond to issues of language use, what do you have to learn ?  In what way are ‘context’ and ‘ text’ interrelated ?  What are the three main functions of language?  How can you differentiate ‘spoken text’ from ‘written text’?  There are three contexts of situation. What are they?  To which context of situation does the ideational meaning belong?  To which context of situation does the interpersonal meaning belong?  To which context of situation does the textual meaning belong?  There are three levels of language. What are they? Explain each.  To which level does a text belong?

21 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 THANK YOU


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