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German Pietism “The World begins to feel a Warmth from the Fire of God, which thus flames in the heart of Germany, beginning to extend into many Regions;

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Presentation on theme: "German Pietism “The World begins to feel a Warmth from the Fire of God, which thus flames in the heart of Germany, beginning to extend into many Regions;"— Presentation transcript:

1 German Pietism “The World begins to feel a Warmth from the Fire of God, which thus flames in the heart of Germany, beginning to extend into many Regions; the whole world will ere long be sensible of it.” – Cotton Mather CHURCH HISTORY II Lesson 18

2 Agenda 1. Identity and Definitions 2. Historical Overview 3. Lessons we can learn

3 Identity and Definitions

4 Who were the Pietists? German ministers and laymen who rose up in protest against the deadness and emptiness of 17 th century Lutheran Orthodoxy to embrace a more vital,experiential,personal and morally earnest Christianity.

5 German Puritans? Not really. Similar to Puritanism in emphasis on moral earnestness and experiential religion, but more quietistic, more mystical, more missions-minded, less Calvinistic, less theologically precise and less interested in the polity and ceremonies of the state church.

6 What’s in a name? “Pietist” = from Latin pietas, Greek eusebeia “Pietist” = from Latin pietas, Greek eusebeia Probably taken from the title of Spener’s book, Pia Desideria, or perhaps from the name of his societies collegia pietatis. Probably taken from the title of Spener’s book, Pia Desideria, or perhaps from the name of his societies collegia pietatis. Given by Orthodox opponents as a term of mockery Given by Orthodox opponents as a term of mockery Pietists generally did not use the term of themselves out of humility Pietists generally did not use the term of themselves out of humility

7 Modern Attitudes “Pietism is still generally associated with anti- intellectualism, hyper-individualism, and holy- group separatism; untouched by the Reformation, it lived off the ‘Eroticism of medieval mysticism’ and the ‘Pharisaic irresponsibility’ of medieval monasticism.” ~ Albert Ritschl “Pietism is still generally associated with anti- intellectualism, hyper-individualism, and holy- group separatism; untouched by the Reformation, it lived off the ‘Eroticism of medieval mysticism’ and the ‘Pharisaic irresponsibility’ of medieval monasticism.” ~ Albert Ritschl “Better with the Church in hell than with pietists, of higher or lower type – in a heaven which does not exist.” – Karl Barth “Better with the Church in hell than with pietists, of higher or lower type – in a heaven which does not exist.” – Karl Barth “A pietist is a man who studies the word of God and, taking it for his rule of faith and conduct, leads an exemplary life.” – a 1 st gen. pietist “A pietist is a man who studies the word of God and, taking it for his rule of faith and conduct, leads an exemplary life.” – a 1 st gen. pietist

8 Where are they today? Not a denomination, but a spiritual reform movement Not a denomination, but a spiritual reform movement Gave birth to new denominations Gave birth to new denominations –Moravians –Church of the Brethren Significantly shaped future ones Significantly shaped future ones –Wesleyan / Methodist Had a lasting reforming impact on existing ones Had a lasting reforming impact on existing ones –Lutherans –Mennonites

9 Are you a Pietist? No! Pietism properly refers to Lutherans from the late 17 th to mid 18 th centuries sympathetic to the ideas of Spener and Francke. No! Pietism properly refers to Lutherans from the late 17 th to mid 18 th centuries sympathetic to the ideas of Spener and Francke. Yes! Pietism in a broader sense can also refer to any tradition that emphasizes personal religious experience and calls itself “evangelical”. Yes! Pietism in a broader sense can also refer to any tradition that emphasizes personal religious experience and calls itself “evangelical”.

10 We’re not looking for a “model” church, but streaks of divine life and revival wherever we can find it, interwoven as it will always be with many flaws no matter where we look. God has not seen fit to pour the full, unmixed glory of true Christianity into any one vessel, but has allowed different aspects of true Christianity to be grasped, emphasized and worked out in a variety of ways by different groups over the course of church history. We are Christians first, Protestant second and Reformed third. With varying degrees of healthy criticism and measured carefulness, we can and should draw encouragement and help from all over the Christian spectrum wherever Christ has been loved, the fruits of Christian graces increased, the Bible and prayer held in high esteem, and a missionary zeal present; for there, surely the Holy Spirit has been at work in that part of God’s vineyard, and who are we to despise it? “Pietistic” Movements Puritanism ( ) Dutch Second Reformation ( ) German Pietism ( ) Evangelical Awakening ( ) Jansenism ( ) Quietism ( ) England & America Holland Germany & Scandinavia France Spain & Italy Protestant Catholic

11 Protestant Lutheran OrthodoxPietists Lutheran Pietists Moderate Pietists Radical Pietists Separating Pietists Church of the Brethren Moravians Other small splinter groups ReformedAnabaptistAnglican

12 HistoricalOverview

13 Historical Overview 1. Dead Orthodoxy ( ) 2. Spener’s Reforms ( ) 3. Francke & U. of Halle ( ) 4. Mack & the Brethren ( ) 5. Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( )

14 Condition of Theology Luther held almost infallible Luther held almost infallible Symbolic books (Augsburg Confession, Formula of Concord) Symbolic books (Augsburg Confession, Formula of Concord) Spiritual authority and power vested permanently in the church’s offices without regard to how a minister lives. Spiritual authority and power vested permanently in the church’s offices without regard to how a minister lives. Opus operatum view of sacraments Opus operatum view of sacraments Theology was thought too high for the common people Theology was thought too high for the common people Any talk of the Holy Spirit was treated as fanaticism Any talk of the Holy Spirit was treated as fanaticism Dead Orthodoxy Slide 1/3 “A de-Vaticanized Catholicism” “The symbolical books are, not only in facts and doctrines, but also in other matters, that Divine truth which was delivered to the Church, and which is in all points binding.” - Univ. of Wittenberg

15 Condition of the Clergy Clergy were subservient to territorial princes Clergy were subservient to territorial princes Seminaries taught polemics and Aristotelian logic, to the utter neglect of biblical exegesis Seminaries taught polemics and Aristotelian logic, to the utter neglect of biblical exegesis Much of the clergy was unconverted and morally bankrupt Much of the clergy was unconverted and morally bankrupt Sermons were dry polemics in the language of the academy Sermons were dry polemics in the language of the academy Dead Orthodoxy Slide 2/3 “[Most ministers] have no understanding of true Christianity and are worldly, carnal, self- serving and arrogant.” - Spener

16 Condition of the Laity Rigid class distinctions Rigid class distinctions Rampant drunkenness Rampant drunkenness Morally licentious Morally licentious Widespread belief in witchcraft, astrology, alchemy Widespread belief in witchcraft, astrology, alchemy Mandatory but inattentive church attendance Mandatory but inattentive church attendance Dead Orthodoxy Slide 3/3

17 Historical Overview 1. Dead Orthodoxy ( ) 2. Spener’s Reforms ( ) 3. Francke & U. of Halle ( ) 4. Mack & the Brethren ( ) 5. Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( )

18 Philipp Jakob Spener ( ) Shaping Influences Shaping Influences –Johann Arndt –The Puritans (Bayly, Baxter) –Univ. of Strasbourg –Travel in Reformed areas –Jean Labadie Pastor in Frankfort ( ) Pastor in Frankfort ( ) –Church reforms –Extensive correspondence with the nobility –Founding of Collegia Pietatis (1670) –Pia Desideria (1675) –Spiritual Priesthood (1677) Court Chaplain in Dresden ( ) Court Chaplain in Dresden ( ) –Adiaphoristic controversy –Met August Hermann Francke Superintendent in Berlin ( ) Superintendent in Berlin ( ) Spener’s Reforms Slide 1/5

19 Collegia Pietatis 1669 – suggests lay meetings from the pulpit 1669 – suggests lay meetings from the pulpit – Holds meetings in his home – Holds meetings in his home –Met twice a week –Men and women in separate groups –Read and discussed the Bible with equal participation for all –Sacraments were forbidden –Sprung up all over Germany – Spener becomes disillusioned – Spener becomes disillusioned –Groups had become a church within a church –Groups became hyper-critical of the established church –Groups become separationist, one emigrates to Pennsylvania –Spener had to write in support of the unique role of ministers –Eventually gave up on the whole idea Spener’s Reforms Slide 2/5 “…acted like a medicine which was more dangerous than the disease it was supposed to cure.” - Spener

20 Pia Desideria 1675 – Spener is asked to write the preface for a new edition of Johann Arndt’s True Christianity 1675 – Spener is asked to write the preface for a new edition of Johann Arndt’s True Christianity A set of practical, concrete proposals for reforming the seminaries, churches and Christian homes to facilitate the development of “an earnest, inner godliness.” A set of practical, concrete proposals for reforming the seminaries, churches and Christian homes to facilitate the development of “an earnest, inner godliness.” Soon published by itself as Pia Desideria, or “Pious Wishes” Soon published by itself as Pia Desideria, or “Pious Wishes” Ignited extensive discussion on his proposals throughout Germany Ignited extensive discussion on his proposals throughout Germany Divided into three parts: Divided into three parts: –A Conspectus of Corrupt Conditions –The Possibility of Better Conditions –Proposals to Correct Conditions in the Church Spener’s Reforms Slide 3/5

21 Pia Desideria Possibility of Better Conditions Rom. 11 – conversion of Israel Rom. 11 – conversion of Israel Rev – fall of Papal Rome Rev – fall of Papal Rome Biblical perfectionism Biblical perfectionism –“we are not forbidden to seek perfection, but we are urged on toward it… we are under obligation to achieve some degree of perfection.” –“We do not understand the perfection which we demand of the church in such a way that not a single hypocrite is any longer to be found in it… but that the church should be free of manifest offenses, that nobody who is afflicted with such failings should be allowed to remain in the church without fitting reproof and ultimately exclusion, and that the true members of the church should be richly filled with many fruits of their faith.” Spener’s Reforms Slide 4/5

22 Pia Desideria Proposals to Correct Conditions in the Church Recover the Spiritual Priesthood Recover the Spiritual Priesthood –More extensive use of the Word Universal Bible ownership and daily reading Universal Bible ownership and daily reading Consecutive reading instead of lectionary Consecutive reading instead of lectionary Lay assemblies for mutual edification / Bible study Lay assemblies for mutual edification / Bible study –Use of personal accountability partners Put a major pastoral emphasis on love Put a major pastoral emphasis on love –Preach the indispensible necessity of love and the danger of self-love –Be gracious toward those with whom we disagree Rethink the role of seminaries Rethink the role of seminaries –Teach the necessity of godliness and emulate it in the professors –Include courses in pastoral theology and practice into curricula –Have the students read also from the mystics, such as Tauler, Theologia Germanica and Arndt Spener’s Reforms Slide 5/5 “Every Christian is bound not only to offer himself and what he has, his prayer, thanksgiving, good works, alms, etc, but also industriously to study in the Word of the Lord, with the grace that is given him to teach others, especially those under his own root, to chastise, exhort, convert, and edify them, to observe their life, pray for all, and insofar as possible be concerned about their salvation.” “They must become accustomed not to lose sight of any opportunity in which they can render their neighbor a service of love, and yet while performing it they must diligently search their hearts to discover whether they are acting in true love or out of other motives.” "While we should indicate to [unbelievers and heretics] that we take no pleasure in their unbelief or false belief or practice and propagation of these, but rather are vigorously opposed to them, yet in other things which pertain to human life we should demonstrate that we consider these people to be our neighbors… regard them as our brothers according to the right of common creation and the divine love that is extended to all." "Students of theology ought to lay this foundation, that during their early years of study they realize that they must die unto the world and live as individuals who are to become examples to the flock." "The divine means of Word and sacrament are concerned with the inner man. Hence it is not enough that we hear the Word with our outward ear, but we must let it penetrate to our heart, so that we may hear the Holy Spirit speak there, that is, with vibrant emotion and comfort feel the sealing of the Spirit and the power of the Word."

23 Historical Overview 1. Dead Orthodoxy ( ) 2. Spener’s Reforms ( ) 3. Francke & U. of Halle ( ) 4. Mack & the Brethren ( ) 5. Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( )

24 August Hermann Francke ( ) Promising Hebrew student Promising Hebrew student 1684 – Entered University of Leipzig 1684 – Entered University of Leipzig 1686 – Founded Collegium Philobiblicum for Masters 1686 – Founded Collegium Philobiblicum for Masters 1687 – Penitential struggle & conversion 1687 – Penitential struggle & conversion 1690 – Collegium banned, Francke driven out of Leipzig 1690 – Collegium banned, Francke driven out of Leipzig 1691 – Invited by Spener to teach at the new University of Halle 1691 – Invited by Spener to teach at the new University of Halle Life’s ministry at Halle Life’s ministry at Halle –Pastor of the town of Glaucha –Chair of Biblical Languages & Theology at Univ. of Halle –Founder of many charities and institutions Francke & U. of Halle ( ) Slide 1/4 “Our mission as professors is to make students more learned and not more pious.” -A seminary professor at Leipzig

25 Theological Distinctives Necessity of penitential struggle / dated conversion experience Necessity of penitential struggle / dated conversion experience Strictness / severity of discipline Strictness / severity of discipline –Condemnation of theater, dance –Highly restrictive of music in any form –Scriptural Rules for Living Do not speak much Do not speak much Avoid trifling jests and anecdotes Avoid trifling jests and anecdotes Avoid speaking of yourself Avoid speaking of yourself Avoid unnecessary mirth Avoid unnecessary mirth Engage in no unprofitable use of time Engage in no unprofitable use of time Do not read trifling, useless books Do not read trifling, useless books Renewed Donatism Renewed Donatism –Efficacy of Word and sacrament depends on the instrument (minister) Invisibility / non-institutionalism of the Church Invisibility / non-institutionalism of the Church Francke & U. of Halle ( ) Slide 2/4 “God gives and works his light, kindness, Holy Spirit, life, etc. only through similarly illumined, kind, living, spiritual people. The Holy Spirit will not grace anyone through the Devil, but will rather work like through like.” “I believe that the outward church of Christ, including all its gifts and sacraments, because of the breaking in and laying waste by Antichrist right after the death of the apostles, went up into heaven and lies concealed in the Spirit and in truth. I am thus quite certain that for fourteen hundred years now there has existed no gathered church nor any sacrament… the church is today a purely spiritual thing.

26 Francke & U. of Halle ( ) Slide 3/4 Halle Foundation Began with an offering of $2.80 in a collection box, Easter 1695 Began with an offering of $2.80 in a collection box, Easter 1695 Founded a constellation of institutions Founded a constellation of institutions 3,200 people sheltered, educated or employed by the Institutions during Francke’s lifetime 3,200 people sheltered, educated or employed by the Institutions during Francke’s lifetime Francke never asked for money, but depended solely on prayer Francke never asked for money, but depended solely on prayer Free boarding school Classical school for paying children Real-school / vocational school * Teacher’s clinic Orphanage * Hospital Drug store Chemical laboratory Home for unmarried women Home for widows Homeless shelter Book-bindery Printing shop Bible Institute * LaundryFarm Beer brewery “A splendid capital with which something of importance can be founded; I will begin a school for the poor with it”

27 Francke & U. of Halle ( ) Slide 4/4 International Influence Sent Bibles, tracts and hymnbooks to Swedish prisoners in Siberia Sent Bibles, tracts and hymnbooks to Swedish prisoners in Siberia Heavy influence in Scandinavia Heavy influence in Scandinavia Danish-Halle Mission ( ) Danish-Halle Mission ( ) –King Friedrich IV of Denmark –Ziegenbalg & Plutschau to India, 1706 Taught Tamil, Portuguese; conferences with the Brahmans; opened schools; translated the Bible into Tamil; wrote a Tamil dictionary; established a seminary; began custom of sending regular missionary reports Taught Tamil, Portuguese; conferences with the Brahmans; opened schools; translated the Bible into Tamil; wrote a Tamil dictionary; established a seminary; began custom of sending regular missionary reports Ziegenbalg left behind 355 converts Ziegenbalg left behind 355 converts –60 missionaries sent in the 18 th century Produced internationally important church leaders Produced internationally important church leaders –Muhlenberg -> Lutheranism in America –Zinzendorf -> Moravians world-wide

28 Moderate Pietists: Moderate Pietists: –John Albert Bengel Father of Textual Criticism Father of Textual Criticism Forerunner of German rationalism Forerunner of German rationalism –Johann Freylinghausen & Gerhard Tersteegen Prolific hymn-writers Prolific hymn-writers Radical Pietists: Radical Pietists: –Gottfried Arnold Impartial History of the Church and of Heretics Impartial History of the Church and of Heretics –Eberhard Gruber “Inspirationists”  Amana Colonies “Inspirationists”  Amana Colonies –Friedrich Oetinger Nature mysticism Nature mysticism Other Notable Pietists Slide 1/1

29 Mid-Late 1700s – Lutheran Pietism as an identifiable movement disintegrates: Mid-Late 1700s – Lutheran Pietism as an identifiable movement disintegrates: –Halle slides into harsh legalism –Danish-Halle mission withers –Radical pietism discredits the whole movement –Rationalism begins to overtake the seminaries and puts an end to both Orthodoxy and Pietism at the same time. Pietism in Decline Slide 1/1

30 Historical Overview 1. Dead Orthodoxy ( ) 2. Spener’s Reforms ( ) 3. Francke & U. of Halle ( ) 4. Mack & the Brethren ( ) 5. Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( )

31 Ernst Christoph Hochmann ( ) Vocal in biting criticism of the Lutheran Church Vocal in biting criticism of the Lutheran Church Expelled from Halle Expelled from Halle Radicalized by contact with Gottfried Arnold Radicalized by contact with Gottfried Arnold – Wonders around Germany for 12 years railing against the Church; often whipped and imprisoned – Wonders around Germany for 12 years railing against the Church; often whipped and imprisoned Writes confession of faith in Castle Detmold Writes confession of faith in Castle Detmold –Believer’s baptism by trine immersion –Love feast / feet washing / holy kiss –Pacifism –Perfectionism –Universalism Took refuge in Schwarzenau where he befriended Alexander Mack Took refuge in Schwarzenau where he befriended Alexander Mack Though never one of the Brethren, his confession provided the Brethren with their theology Though never one of the Brethren, his confession provided the Brethren with their theology Mack & the Brethren ( ) Slide 1/4

32 Alexander Mack ( ) Heavily influenced by Gottfried Arnold’s History and Hochmann’s theological and ecclesiastical ideas Heavily influenced by Gottfried Arnold’s History and Hochmann’s theological and ecclesiastical ideas Concluded that separation was necessary in order to practice biblical church discipline Concluded that separation was necessary in order to practice biblical church discipline Schwarzenau, 1708 – Baptizes seven followers in the river Eder by Trine immersion Schwarzenau, 1708 – Baptizes seven followers in the river Eder by Trine immersion Founds the Church of the Brethren Founds the Church of the Brethren –Also called German Baptists, New Baptists or Dunkers –No creeds but the Bible –No traditions but what Jesus and the apostles did –Love feasts, foot washing, trine immersion –For a short time also practiced community of goods and celibacy Establishes four centers: Schwarzenau, Marienborn, Epstein and Creyfelt Establishes four centers: Schwarzenau, Marienborn, Epstein and Creyfelt Mack & the Brethren ( ) Slide 2/4

33 Emmigration to America 1715 – Marienborn and Epstein congregations driven by persecution to Creyfelt 1715 – Marienborn and Epstein congregations driven by persecution to Creyfelt Marriage scandal at Creyfelt Marriage scandal at Creyfelt 1719 – Peter Becker leads group to Germantown, PA – Peter Becker leads group to Germantown, PA. Creyfelt church disintegrates Creyfelt church disintegrates 1729 – Schwarzenau group emmigrates to Germantown, PA and Mack assumes leadership in America 1729 – Schwarzenau group emmigrates to Germantown, PA and Mack assumes leadership in America In several waves, 100% of Brethren left Europe for America In several waves, 100% of Brethren left Europe for America Mack & the Brethren ( ) Slide 3/4

34 The Brethren in America Settlements in Pennsylvania and New Jersey Settlements in Pennsylvania and New Jersey Johann Conrad Beissel Johann Conrad Beissel –Leader of the Conestoga area church –Withdrew from Brethren as not pure enough –Rebaptized his congregation once again –Adopted a 7 th day Sabbath observance –Formed the famous Ephrata celibate community Splits in the 19 th and 20 th centuries over opposition to: Splits in the 19 th and 20 th centuries over opposition to: –Musical instruments –Sunday schools –Foreign missions –Revivalism –Telephones –Automobiles Currently 8 functioning denominations descended from Mack’s group Currently 8 functioning denominations descended from Mack’s group –Most prominent is the moderate Fellowship of Grace Brethren Churches –Grace College and Seminary in Winona Lake, IN Mack & the Brethren ( ) Slide 4/4

35 Historical Overview 1. Dead Orthodoxy ( ) 2. Spener’s Reforms ( ) 3. Francke & U. of Halle ( ) 4. Mack & the Brethren ( ) 5. Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( )

36 Count Nicholas Lewis von Zinzendorf ( ): Childhood Aristocratic family Aristocratic family Raised by his godly grandmother Catherine von Gersdorf in a castle Raised by his godly grandmother Catherine von Gersdorf in a castle Spener was his godfather in baptism Spener was his godfather in baptism Began seeking God at 4 years old Began seeking God at 4 years old Heart ablaze by age 6: Heart ablaze by age 6: –Spent hours in prayer daily –Soldiers incident –Preached sermons to his friends –Cast love letters to Jesus out of his castle window Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( ) Slide 1/4 “If it were possible that there should be another God than Christ, I would rather be damned with Christ than happy with another.” “I have but one passion – ‘tis He, ‘tis only He.”

37 Zinzendorf: Education Sent to the classical school in Halle under Francke at age 10 Sent to the classical school in Halle under Francke at age 10 Bullied for being too religious Bullied for being too religious At age 14, founded the Sacred Order of the Mustard Seed At age 14, founded the Sacred Order of the Mustard Seed –Love all men –Be true to Christ –Bring the gospel to the heathen Founded six more societies while in his teens Founded six more societies while in his teens Sent to Wittenberg to be made more worldly Sent to Wittenberg to be made more worldly –Held prayer meetings, Bible study meeting –All night prayer vigils –Founded more societies –Chosen by the faculty as mediator between Wittenberg and Halle Tour of Europe Tour of Europe –Profoundly impacted by sight of painting of Christ in a Dusseldorf gallery Testing at uncle’s house Testing at uncle’s house Marriage Marriage Purchased Berthelsdorf from grandmother Purchased Berthelsdorf from grandmother Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( ) Slide 1/4

38 Christian David Conversion from Catholicism Conversion from Catholicism Taken in by the Pietists Taken in by the Pietists Returned to Moravia preaching everywhere Returned to Moravia preaching everywhere Stirred up hidden remnants of the old Bohemian Brethren (Hussites) Stirred up hidden remnants of the old Bohemian Brethren (Hussites) Persecution drives Christian David to ask Zinzendorf for asylum at Berthelsdorf Persecution drives Christian David to ask Zinzendorf for asylum at Berthelsdorf 1722 – takes a dozen Hussites to Berthelsdorf and founds community of Herrnhut on a barren hilltop above the town 1722 – takes a dozen Hussites to Berthelsdorf and founds community of Herrnhut on a barren hilltop above the town Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( ) Slide 1/4

39 Herrnhut under Christian David ( ) At first, the Herrnhutters are excited and joyful At first, the Herrnhutters are excited and joyful Successive immigrations makes Herrnhut a patchwork quilt of discontents of every stripe Successive immigrations makes Herrnhut a patchwork quilt of discontents of every stripe Division, envy, strife develops Division, envy, strife develops An fiery leader turns Herrnhut against Zinzendorf and the Berthelsdorf church An fiery leader turns Herrnhut against Zinzendorf and the Berthelsdorf church –Zinzendorf called “the Beast” –Entire Protestant church is “Babylon” –Herrnhut and Berthelsdorf preachers rail against each other –Christian David rebuilds his house outside the Herrnhut compound Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( ) Slide 1/4

40 Zinzendorf Intervenes May Zinzendorf steps in and lays down the law May Zinzendorf steps in and lays down the law –Theological disputes forbidden –All who sincerely seek holiness and love Jesus are to be accepted –Both communities repent and ask forgiveness August Joint communion service August Joint communion service –Spiritual joy fills all who are present at once –Herrnhutters covenant to forever be a group known for their love Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( ) Slide 1/4

41 Herrnhut under Zinzendorf ( ) Government Discovered and implemented Unitas Fratrum ancient Order of Discipline Discovered and implemented Unitas Fratrum ancient Order of Discipline 12 elders, 4 super-elders, 1 chief elder chosen by lot 12 elders, 4 super-elders, 1 chief elder chosen by lot Everyone given an office / assigned duty Everyone given an office / assigned duty A list of converted people was maintained; others expelled A list of converted people was maintained; others expelled Engagement allowed only in the presence of the elders and decided by lot Engagement allowed only in the presence of the elders and decided by lot Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( ) Slide 1/4

42 Herrnhut under Zinzendorf ( ) Community Established a school Established a school All inhabitants divided into “choirs” by age, gender & marital status that lived in common buildings All inhabitants divided into “choirs” by age, gender & marital status that lived in common buildings School-age children taken from their parents and raised communally in a separate building School-age children taken from their parents and raised communally in a separate building Women wore simple dress with color-coded ribbons Women wore simple dress with color-coded ribbons Strict schedule: Strict schedule: –16 hours work –5 hours sleep –3 hours for meals and worship meetings Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( ) Slide 1/4

43 Herrnhut under Zinzendorf ( ) Worship Worship Prayer & song meetings three times daily Prayer & song meetings three times daily Composed hymns impromptu during meetings Composed hymns impromptu during meetings –Zinzendorf himself wrote 2,000 hymns Practiced foot washing, love feasts, kiss of peace and casting of lots Practiced foot washing, love feasts, kiss of peace and casting of lots Assigned prayer rotations for unceasing 24-hour prayer Assigned prayer rotations for unceasing 24-hour prayer –Continued unbroken for 100 years Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( ) Slide 1/4

44 Moravian Missions Zinzendorf’s state visit to Copenhagen (1731) Zinzendorf’s state visit to Copenhagen (1731) –Two eskimos from the failed Danish Greenland missino –Anthony the slave from the Caribbean 18 missionaries in first 25 years – more than all other Protestants in 200 years 18 missionaries in first 25 years – more than all other Protestants in 200 years –Dober / Nitschmann to St. Thomas (1732) –Stach / Boemish to Greenland –Spangenberg to Georgia –David Zeisberger to the American Indians (1734) –Georg Schmidt to the Hottentots of S. Africa –Others to mostly uncivilized peoples around the world Campaigned against slavery, cruelty; built schools, translated the Bible, taught people to read, organized churches that emphasized holy living Campaigned against slavery, cruelty; built schools, translated the Bible, taught people to read, organized churches that emphasized holy living Forbidden to work where other Christian groups were working Forbidden to work where other Christian groups were working In the first 130 years: In the first 130 years: –100,000 members –41 missions –1,199 missionaries Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( ) Slide 1/4 A missionary “must be a man who felt within him an irresistible call; a man who loathed the lusts of the world, who burned with love to Christ, who was approved by all his Brethren, and whose face shone with the light of a Divine joy.”

45 Later Years – Exile in Marienborn – Exile in Marienborn –1737 – Zinzendorf consecrated as bishop –“Warrior Band” – – “Sifting time” 1750 – Given authorized recognition by the government as “Evangelical Moravian Unity of the Brethren” 1750 – Given authorized recognition by the government as “Evangelical Moravian Unity of the Brethren” Moravians in America Moravians in America –1740 – Spangenberg founds Bethlehem, PA –Worked extensively throughout the colonies –Extensive Indian missions –Established four major settlements, one in Salem, NC –Do not grow much because of compound mentality Impact on Wesley and the Evangelical Awakening Impact on Wesley and the Evangelical Awakening Today they have 825,000 members mostly in Germany, America and Tanzania and are still active in missionary work Today they have 825,000 members mostly in Germany, America and Tanzania and are still active in missionary work Zinzendorf & the Moravians ( ) Slide 1/4 The Moravian Motto: "In essentials, unity; in nonessentials, liberty; and in all things, charity"


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