Presentation on theme: "Puritanism Giulia Pellis 4 A A.S. 2010/2011. Puritans Puritans was the name given in the 16th century to the more extreme Protestants. The English Puritans."— Presentation transcript:
Puritans Puritans was the name given in the 16th century to the more extreme Protestants. The English Puritans were known at first for their extremely critical attitude regarding the religious compromises made during the reign of Elizabeth I. They wanted to purify their national church by eliminating every shred of Catholic influence. They encouraged direct personal religious experience, sincere moral conduct, and simple worship services.
History The theological roots of Puritanism from John Calvin. Puritans obtained a measure of public acceptance in the early years of Queen Elizabeth's reign. They then suffered a series of reverses that lasted through the reigns of her successors James I and Charles I. In the days of James I some Puritans grew discouraged about their reforming efforts and separated entirely from the Church of England.
During Charles I reign they emigrated Massachusetts Bay (1630), where for the first time Puritans had the opportunity to construct churches and a society reflecting their grasp of the word of God. In England other Puritans continued the struggle for reform. Civil war, a conflict between Charles I and Parliament, ended with the execution of the king (1649), the rise of Oliver Cromwell to the protectorate of England. Yet Cromwell, for all his abilities, found it impossible to establish a Puritan state. After his death (1658), the people of England asked the son of Charles I to return, a restoration marking the collapse of organized Puritanism in England.
The Puritans in America Most of the Puritans settled in the New England area. They held very strong spiritual beliefs and this included community laws and customs. They were motivated from God for all their actions. In a foreign land surrounded with the lacks of pioneer life, their spiritual promise made them sympathetic to each other's needs.
Each church congregation was to be individually responsible to God, as was each person. They emphasized conversion and not repression. Conversion was a rejection of the "worldliness" of society and a strictly connected to Biblical principles. Although repression was not encouraged.
Education Puritans formed the first formal school in 1635, called the Roxbury Latin School and for the first time schooling was free. Four years later, the first American College was established; Harvard in Cambridge.
Children aged 6-8 attended a "Dame school“ where the teacher, who was usually a widow, taught reading. "Ciphering" (math) and writing were low on the academic agenda. In 1638, the first printing press arrived. By 1700, Boston became the second largest publishing center of the English Empire. The Puritans were the first to write books for children, and to discuss the difficulties in communicating with them. At a time when other Americans were physically blazing trails through the forests, the Puritans efforts in areas of study were advancing our country intellectually.
Beliefs Puritanism had emphasized some of the English Reformation’s convictions: personal salvation was entirely from God, the Bible provided the indispensable guide to life, the church should reflect the express teaching of Scripture, society was one unified whole. The Puritans believed that humankind was utterly dependent upon God for salvation. They believed in the supreme authority of the Bible They believed in the Talent’s parabola in which every man should improve himself to make money and to increase his social level.