Presentation on theme: "The Reformation Continues John Calvin and other reformers begin new Protestant churches. The Catholic Church is forced to make reforms as well."— Presentation transcript:
The Reformation Continues John Calvin and other reformers begin new Protestant churches. The Catholic Church is forced to make reforms as well
John Calvin Calvin studied law and philosophy at the University of Paris. He became very interested in the teachings of Martin Luther. When the French king, Francis I ordered the arrest of Protestants, Calvin fled to Switzerland.
Calvin Begins another Protestant Church John Calvin, from France, taught that men and women were sinful by nature. He believed that God chooses a very few people to save. He referred to these people as the “elect”. God chooses the elect before they are even born. This idea is called “predestination” and his teachings are called “Calvinism”.
Calvin Runs Geneva To Calvin, the ideal government was a government controlled by religious leaders, a theocracy. In 1541, Protestants in Geneva, Switzerland, asked Calvin to lead their city.
Rules of Calvinism Everyone had to attend religious classes No one wore bright clothing No playing card games No laughing No overt enjoyment of food or drink No dancing Anyone who broke the rules would be imprisoned or burned at the stake.
Calvinism Spreads A man named John Knox from Scotland visited Geneva and admired the community that Calvin had created. Knox put Calvinism to work in Scotland with a few changes. This became the Presbyterian Church.
The Huguenots Calvinists in France were called the Huguenots. In France the hatred between the Catholics and the Huguenots often led to violence. Nearly 12,000 Huguenots were massacred over a six month period of time in 1572-73.
Other Reformers The Anabaptists: They believed that people who were baptized as children should be baptized again as adults when they were free to make their own decisions. The Anabaptists are the forerunners to the Amish and Mennonites. They had a big influence on the Quakers and Baptists as well.
Women of the Reformation Initially, women played a big role in the Reformation as they gained some equality with men. Eventually however, the men began to sharply limit the activities of women and discouraged them from becoming active within the churches.
The Catholic Reformation The Catholic Church was forced to make changes as it was quickly loosing membership to the Protestant movement.
Ignatius of Loyola Ignatius Loyola was the son of a Spanish noble. He led a sinful life full of lust and had a tendency toward violence. He was badly injured during a battle in 1521. As he recovered, he began thinking about the way he was wasting his life. He vowed to change his ways and wrote a book of daily meditation and prayers. He gathered a large following of other lost souls.
The Jesuits Loyola’s group became known as the Jesuits. The Jesuits concentrated on three activities: They founded religious schools Converted non-Christians to Catholicism Stop Protestantism from spreading
Reforming Popes Two popes took the lead in reforming the Church, Paul III and Paul IV.
Pope Paul III’s Reforms Paul III took four steps toward reforming the Church. 1. He directed an investigation into the selling of indulgences and other abuses within the Church. 2. He approved the Jesuit order. 3. He established the Inquisition to seek out and punish heresy. 4. He called a meeting, the Council of Trent, to reaffirm the doctrine of the Church.
Thousands of Jesuit priests and monks were dispersed out of Europe to Africa, Asia and the Americas. The Jesuits had a permanent impact because they founded schools, colleges, and universities throughout the world. Global Impact of the Jesuit Missionaries
Church Doctrine The Church’s interpretation of the Bible is final. Christians need faith and good works for salvation. The Bible and the Church traditions are equal in authority for guiding Christian life. Indulgences were valid expressions of faith (But false selling of indulgences was banned).
Pope Paul IV’s Reform Paul IV vigorously carried out the doctrine affirmed at the Council of Trent. He created a list of books that were banned (including the Protestant versions of the Bible), that were to be gathered and burned.
Legacy of the Reformation Protestant churches flourished despite wars and persecutions. Religion no longer united Europe. The Church’s power declined and the power of kings increased. Nationalism took the place of religious zeal.