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Curriculum Design and Development Part I

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1 Curriculum Design and Development Part I
This Week’s Topics Levels of Curriculum Sources of Curriculum Design Types of Curriculum Designs

2 LEVELS OF CURRICULUM Refers to the degree of remoteness from students for whom the curricula were planned. This section provides information about levels of curriculum as reported by Goodlad and Su (1992). Goodlad, J., & Su, Z. (1992). Organization of the curriculum. In P. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of research on curriculum ( ). New York: Macmillan.

3 LEVELS OF CURRICULUM Societal Institutional Instructional Experiential

4 Societal Curriculum Farthest removed from learners and is designed by the public, such as politicians, representatives of special interest groups, and professional specialists. These groups often decide the goals, the topics to be studied, the time to be spent, and the materials to be used.

5 Institutional Curriculum
Derived largely from societal curricula with modifications by local educators and laypersons. This curriculum is commonly organized according to subjects and includes the topics and themes to be studied. Includes the district or school’s written documents containing standards, philosophies, lesson plans, and guides. This curriculum, also called the explicit curriculum, is the target of reform movements.

6 Instructional Curriculum
This is the curriculum that teachers plan and deliver in schools. Teachers base instructional curricula on what has been determined as necessary or desirable for their school by school authorities. As expected, however, this curriculum takes on the individual teacher’s priorities, views of education, and style and is also subject to reform and criticism.

7 Experiential Curriculum
This is the curriculum perceived and experienced by students. What is experienced differs from one student to the next because students have different backgrounds, motivations, and levels of aspirations, to name just a few. For example, some students form similar purposes for learning experiences to those held by their teachers, but other students hold very different purposes or no purpose at all.

8 Sources of Curriculum Design
Science as a source Society as a source External and divine sources Knowledge as a source Learner as a source

9 Science as a Source The scientific method provides meaning for the curriculum design. Only those items that can be observed and quantified should be included. Problem solving should have the prime position in the curriculum. This view coincides with the scientific and rational world of Western Culture. FYI…Eisner argues that educators need to understand, besides scientific ways of knowing, aesthetic modes of knowing, interpersonal modes, practical modes, and even spiritual ideas.

10 Society as a Source Curriculum is an agent of society
Serves the broad social interests of society as well as the local community Society shows where to modify the curriculum The challenge is how to address the unique needs of students and demands of diverse social groups and still allow students to gain understanding of the common culture, as well as common, agreed on competencies to engage productively in society

11 External and Divine Sources
Curriculum design should be intended to perpetuate society It should pass on the significance of people’s values and personal morality Includes divine will, eternal truth from the Bible or other religious documents Has had little influence in public schools primarily due to the mandated separation of church and state. However, to many private and parochial schools, this source of curriculum is still valid and a major influence.

12 Knowledge as a Source This is one of the prime sources of curriculum
Disciplined knowledge has a particular structure and a particular method used to extend its boundaries Undisciplined knowledge does not have unique content but pulls from many sources For example, physics has a conceptual structure. However, home economics is undisciplined in that its content is not unique to itself but is drawn from various others disciplines and adapted to a special focus

13 Learner as a Source Curriculum is derived from what we know about the learner For progressive curricularists, humanistic educators, and those engaged in postmodern dialogue, the learner is considered the primary source Emphasis is on “learning by doing” Focused on the social construction and reconstruction of knowledge and the empowerment of individuals to be engaged in these processes

14 Final thoughts… Persons who want to improve the quality of education for themselves and other people must face an initial question: ”What are the sources of the ideas that will determine the kind of education to be provided?” One’s personal philosophy molds and determines one’s thinking about issues in planning for anything of significance. In formulating a philosophy, the individual must consider what he or she will accept as truth. In deciding what is true, one has access to sources or bases of truth. Sources of curriculum design do overlap. We can draw from more than one source. Doll, R. C. (1996). Curriculum improvement: Decision making and process (9th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Ornstein, A., & Hunkins, F. (2004). Curriculum foundations, principles, and issues (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

15 Three Types of Curriculum Designs
Subject-Centered Learner-Centered Problem-Centered

16 Subject-Centered Designs
Subject design Discipline design Broad fields design Correlation design Process design

17 Learner-Centered Designs
Child-centered design Experience-centered design Radical design Humanistic design

18 Problem-Centered Designs
Life-situation design Core design Social problems, reconstructionist design

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