Presentation on theme: "Curriculum Design and Development Part I"— Presentation transcript:
1Curriculum Design and Development Part I This Week’s TopicsLevels of CurriculumSources of Curriculum DesignTypes of Curriculum Designs
2LEVELS OF CURRICULUMRefers to the degree of remoteness from students for whom the curricula were planned. This section provides information about levels of curriculum as reported by Goodlad and Su (1992).Goodlad, J., & Su, Z. (1992). Organization of the curriculum. In P. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of research on curriculum ( ). New York: Macmillan.
3LEVELS OF CURRICULUMSocietalInstitutionalInstructionalExperiential
4Societal CurriculumFarthest removed from learners and is designed by the public, such as politicians, representatives of special interest groups, and professional specialists.These groups often decide the goals, the topics to be studied, the time to be spent, and the materials to be used.
5Institutional Curriculum Derived largely from societal curricula with modifications by local educators and laypersons.This curriculum is commonly organized according to subjects and includes the topics and themes to be studied.Includes the district or school’s written documents containing standards, philosophies, lesson plans, and guides.This curriculum, also called the explicit curriculum, is the target of reform movements.
6Instructional Curriculum This is the curriculum that teachers plan and deliver in schools.Teachers base instructional curricula on what has been determined as necessary or desirable for their school by school authorities.As expected, however, this curriculum takes on the individual teacher’s priorities, views of education, and style and is also subject to reform and criticism.
7Experiential Curriculum This is the curriculum perceived and experienced by students.What is experienced differs from one student to the next because students have different backgrounds, motivations, and levels of aspirations, to name just a few.For example, some students form similar purposes for learning experiences to those held by their teachers, but other students hold very different purposes or no purpose at all.
8Sources of Curriculum Design Science as a sourceSociety as a sourceExternal and divine sourcesKnowledge as a sourceLearner as a source
9Science as a SourceThe scientific method provides meaning for the curriculum design.Only those items that can be observed and quantified should be included.Problem solving should have the prime position in the curriculum.This view coincides with the scientific and rational world of Western Culture.FYI…Eisner argues that educators need to understand, besides scientific ways of knowing, aesthetic modes of knowing, interpersonal modes, practical modes, and even spiritual ideas.
10Society as a Source Curriculum is an agent of society Serves the broad social interests of society as well as the local communitySociety shows where to modify the curriculumThe challenge is how to address the unique needs of students and demands of diverse social groups and still allow students to gain understanding of the common culture, as well as common, agreed on competencies to engage productively in society
11External and Divine Sources Curriculum design should be intended to perpetuate societyIt should pass on the significance of people’s values and personal moralityIncludes divine will, eternal truth from the Bible or other religious documentsHas had little influence in public schools primarily due to the mandated separation of church and state. However, to many private and parochial schools, this source of curriculum is still valid and a major influence.
12Knowledge as a Source This is one of the prime sources of curriculum Disciplined knowledge has a particular structure and a particular method used to extend its boundariesUndisciplined knowledge does not have unique content but pulls from many sourcesFor example, physics has a conceptual structure. However, home economics is undisciplined in that its content is not unique to itself but is drawn from various others disciplines and adapted to a special focus
13Learner as a SourceCurriculum is derived from what we know about the learnerFor progressive curricularists, humanistic educators, and those engaged in postmodern dialogue, the learner is considered the primary sourceEmphasis is on “learning by doing”Focused on the social construction and reconstruction of knowledge and the empowerment of individuals to be engaged in these processes
14Final thoughts…Persons who want to improve the quality of education for themselves and other people must face an initial question: ”What are the sources of the ideas that will determine the kind of education to be provided?”One’s personal philosophy molds and determines one’s thinking about issues in planning for anything of significance. In formulating a philosophy, the individual must consider what he or she will accept as truth. In deciding what is true, one has access to sources or bases of truth.Sources of curriculum design do overlap. We can draw from more than one source.Doll, R. C. (1996). Curriculum improvement: Decision making and process (9th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Ornstein, A., & Hunkins, F. (2004). Curriculum foundations, principles, and issues (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
15Three Types of Curriculum Designs Subject-CenteredLearner-CenteredProblem-Centered