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Curriculum Making The What, Who, and Why. Three Traditional Approaches to Curriculum Development  Curriculum as Process  Curriculum as Praxis  Curriculum.

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Presentation on theme: "Curriculum Making The What, Who, and Why. Three Traditional Approaches to Curriculum Development  Curriculum as Process  Curriculum as Praxis  Curriculum."— Presentation transcript:

1 Curriculum Making The What, Who, and Why

2 Three Traditional Approaches to Curriculum Development  Curriculum as Process  Curriculum as Praxis  Curriculum as Product

3 1949 – Movement to a Scientific Approach to Curriculum Making

4 Ralph W. Tyler Rational-Linear Approach

5 Ralph W. Tyler  1949 – became the most prominent name in curriculum studies  Advocated the evaluation of student behaviors to determine education failure or success

6 Ralph W. Tyler  Theory is called “the dominant model of the twentieth century  Wrote “Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction”

7 Four Fundamental Questions in Designing Curriculum 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2.What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?

8 Four Fundamental Questions in Designing Curriculum 3. How should learning experiences be organized. 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

9 Tyler never suggested what the aims or objectives should be! He did not advocate a particular curriculum.

10 In Tyler’s view, each school has own set of values and these are imbedded in the curriculum of that school.

11 Therefore, he proposed that a school develop a statement of educational philosophy and it be used to screen the objectives that were developed.

12 Controversy over term “Objectives”  Tyler used term “objectives” and suggested we start with defining our objectives – Today these would be called “outcomes”  Many thought in behavioral objective terms rather than goals or aims

13 Tyler did advocate the use of objectives – and behavioral objectives have become the cornerstone of curriculum decision-making and teaching strategies.

14 “Since the real purpose of education is not to have the instructor perform certain activities but to bring about significant changes in the students' pattern of behaviour, it becomes important to recognize that any statements of objectives of the school should be a statement of changes to take place in the students.” (Tyler 1949: 44)

15 Tyler in a Nutshell  State objectives  Select learning activities  Organize learning activities  Develop evaluation

16 So, if you have to write daily objectives or outcomes, thank Ralph W. Tyler

17 Criticism  Focus on objectives  Many suggest that we start with ideas and beliefs  Students are not included in process  Learning can be organized

18 John Franklin Bobbitt

19 John Bobbitt  Advocated education that was useful for promoting society  Advocate of vocational education  Questioned the need for many traditional courses

20 John Franklin Bobbitt  "As agencies of social progress, schools should give efficient service. And efficient service, we are nowadays coming to know, is service directed, not by guess or whim or special self-interest, but by science." (Kliebard, p 101)

21 John Goodlad

22 John Goodlad – three levels of curriculum making  Instructional  Decisions made by teachers and students

23 John Goodlad – three levels of curriculum making  Institutional  School, school district, state

24 John Goodlad – three levels of curriculum making  Societal  Money supplied by citizens

25 Michael Apple “Cultural reproduction”

26 Michael Apple  Each new generation learns the social patterns and power relations of the prior one  We learn to be part of the system and our proper role

27 Michael Apple  Knowledge is cultural capital  Often done through hidden curriculum

28 Decker Walker Deliberative Approach

29 Decker Walker  One of the authors of your textbook  Studied the process of curriculum development

30 Decker Walker  Used term “naturalistic” because he described how curriculum was actually developed rather than how it should be developed.

31 Curriculum Planning has Three Parts  Platform – approach the task with our ideas, convictions, and beliefs. Everyone gets an opportunity to talk, discuss, and even argue

32 Curriculum Planning has Three Parts  Deliberation – Move away from individual beliefs to assessing possible points of action- Feelings can run high and the process can seem chaotic

33 Curriculum Planning has Three Parts  Design – Group achieves consensus so that a course of action is accepted.

34 Walker’s Model

35 Criticism of Walker’s Model  Studied only large scale processes – not individual teachers  Doesn’t address what happens after curriculum is designed and implemented

36 Elliott W. Eisner Artistic Approach

37 Believes in artistry of teaching and helping teachers develop that art Suggests that process of curriculum development is convoluted, circuitous, and adventitious

38 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach 1. Goals and their priorities  Does not think it is always possible to define specific objectives

39 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach  Content of the Curriculum * Consider the needs of individual students, society, and subject matter

40 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach  Types of Learning Opportunities - “education imagination must come into play in order to transform goals and contents into events that will have educational consequences for students”

41 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach 4. Organization of Learning Opportunities – Like a spider web – suggest that learning is not linear

42 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach 5. Organization of Content Areas * Emphasis on cross-curricular organization of content

43 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach 6. Mode of Presentation and Mode of Response – suggests a wide variety of modes of presentation to meet various learning styles

44 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach  Types of Evaluation Procedures Not viewed as final step but viewed as something pervades the entire process.


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