Presentation on theme: "Curriculum Making The What, Who, and Why. Three Traditional Approaches to Curriculum Development Curriculum as Process Curriculum as Praxis Curriculum."— Presentation transcript:
Curriculum Making The What, Who, and Why
Three Traditional Approaches to Curriculum Development Curriculum as Process Curriculum as Praxis Curriculum as Product
1949 – Movement to a Scientific Approach to Curriculum Making
Ralph W. Tyler Rational-Linear Approach
Ralph W. Tyler 1949 – became the most prominent name in curriculum studies Advocated the evaluation of student behaviors to determine education failure or success
Ralph W. Tyler Theory is called “the dominant model of the twentieth century Wrote “Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction”
Four Fundamental Questions in Designing Curriculum 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2.What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
Four Fundamental Questions in Designing Curriculum 3. How should learning experiences be organized. 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
Tyler never suggested what the aims or objectives should be! He did not advocate a particular curriculum.
In Tyler’s view, each school has own set of values and these are imbedded in the curriculum of that school.
Therefore, he proposed that a school develop a statement of educational philosophy and it be used to screen the objectives that were developed.
Controversy over term “Objectives” Tyler used term “objectives” and suggested we start with defining our objectives – Today these would be called “outcomes” Many thought in behavioral objective terms rather than goals or aims
Tyler did advocate the use of objectives – and behavioral objectives have become the cornerstone of curriculum decision-making and teaching strategies.
“Since the real purpose of education is not to have the instructor perform certain activities but to bring about significant changes in the students' pattern of behaviour, it becomes important to recognize that any statements of objectives of the school should be a statement of changes to take place in the students.” (Tyler 1949: 44)
Tyler in a Nutshell State objectives Select learning activities Organize learning activities Develop evaluation
So, if you have to write daily objectives or outcomes, thank Ralph W. Tyler
Criticism Focus on objectives Many suggest that we start with ideas and beliefs Students are not included in process Learning can be organized
John Franklin Bobbitt
John Bobbitt Advocated education that was useful for promoting society Advocate of vocational education Questioned the need for many traditional courses
John Franklin Bobbitt "As agencies of social progress, schools should give efficient service. And efficient service, we are nowadays coming to know, is service directed, not by guess or whim or special self-interest, but by science." (Kliebard, p 101)
John Goodlad – three levels of curriculum making Instructional Decisions made by teachers and students
John Goodlad – three levels of curriculum making Institutional School, school district, state
John Goodlad – three levels of curriculum making Societal Money supplied by citizens
Michael Apple “Cultural reproduction”
Michael Apple Each new generation learns the social patterns and power relations of the prior one We learn to be part of the system and our proper role
Michael Apple Knowledge is cultural capital Often done through hidden curriculum
Decker Walker Deliberative Approach
Decker Walker One of the authors of your textbook Studied the process of curriculum development
Decker Walker Used term “naturalistic” because he described how curriculum was actually developed rather than how it should be developed.
Curriculum Planning has Three Parts Platform – approach the task with our ideas, convictions, and beliefs. Everyone gets an opportunity to talk, discuss, and even argue
Curriculum Planning has Three Parts Deliberation – Move away from individual beliefs to assessing possible points of action- Feelings can run high and the process can seem chaotic
Curriculum Planning has Three Parts Design – Group achieves consensus so that a course of action is accepted.
Criticism of Walker’s Model Studied only large scale processes – not individual teachers Doesn’t address what happens after curriculum is designed and implemented
Elliott W. Eisner Artistic Approach
Believes in artistry of teaching and helping teachers develop that art Suggests that process of curriculum development is convoluted, circuitous, and adventitious
Eisner’s Seven Step Approach 1. Goals and their priorities Does not think it is always possible to define specific objectives
Eisner’s Seven Step Approach Content of the Curriculum * Consider the needs of individual students, society, and subject matter
Eisner’s Seven Step Approach Types of Learning Opportunities - “education imagination must come into play in order to transform goals and contents into events that will have educational consequences for students”
Eisner’s Seven Step Approach 4. Organization of Learning Opportunities – Like a spider web – suggest that learning is not linear
Eisner’s Seven Step Approach 5. Organization of Content Areas * Emphasis on cross-curricular organization of content
Eisner’s Seven Step Approach 6. Mode of Presentation and Mode of Response – suggests a wide variety of modes of presentation to meet various learning styles
Eisner’s Seven Step Approach Types of Evaluation Procedures Not viewed as final step but viewed as something pervades the entire process.