5 Ralph W. Tyler1949 – became the most prominent name in curriculum studiesAdvocated the evaluation of student behaviors to determine education failure or success
6 Ralph W. TylerTheory is called “the dominant model of the twentieth centuryWrote “Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction”
7 Four Fundamental Questions in Designing Curriculum 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?2.What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
8 Four Fundamental Questions in Designing Curriculum 3. How should learning experiences be organized.4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
9 Tyler never suggested what the aims or objectives should be Tyler never suggested what the aims or objectives should be! He did not advocate a particular curriculum.
10 In Tyler’s view, each school has own set of values and these are imbedded in the curriculum of that school.
11 Therefore, he proposed that a school develop a statement of educational philosophy and it be used to screen the objectives that were developed.
12 Controversy over term “Objectives” Tyler used term “objectives” and suggested we start with defining our objectives – Today these would be called “outcomes”Many thought in behavioral objective terms rather than goals or aims
13 Tyler did advocate the use of objectives – and behavioral objectives have become the cornerstone of curriculum decision-making and teaching strategies.
14 “Since the real purpose of education is not to have the instructor perform certain activities but to bring about significant changes in the students' pattern of behaviour, it becomes important to recognize that any statements of objectives of the school should be a statement of changes to take place in the students.” (Tyler 1949: 44)
15 Tyler in a Nutshell State objectives Select learning activities Organize learning activitiesDevelop evaluation
16 So, if you have to write daily objectives or outcomes, thank Ralph W So, if you have to write daily objectives or outcomes, thank Ralph W. Tyler
17 Criticism Focus on objectives Students are not included in process Many suggest that we start with ideas and beliefsStudents are not included in processLearning can be organized
19 John Bobbitt Advocated education that was useful for promoting society Advocate of vocational educationQuestioned the need for many traditional courses
20 John Franklin Bobbitt"As agencies of social progress, schools should give efficient service. And efficient service, we are nowadays coming to know, is service directed, not by guess or whim or special self-interest, but by science." (Kliebard, p 101)
37 Believes in artistry of teaching and helping teachers develop that art Suggests that process of curriculum development is convoluted, circuitous, and adventitious
38 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach 1. Goals and their prioritiesDoes not think it is always possible to define specific objectives
39 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach Content of the Curriculum* Consider the needs of individual students, society, and subject matter
40 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach Types of Learning Opportunities -“education imagination must come into play in order to transform goals and contents into events that will have educational consequences for students”
41 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach 4. Organization of Learning Opportunities – Like a spider web – suggest that learning is not linear
42 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach 5. Organization of Content Areas* Emphasis on cross-curricular organization of content
43 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach 6. Mode of Presentation and Mode of Response – suggests a wide variety of modes of presentation to meet various learning styles
44 Eisner’s Seven Step Approach Types of Evaluation ProceduresNot viewed as final step but viewed as something pervades the entire process.