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Chapter Eight School Curriculum.  Three general components of the curriculum: the formal curriculum the formal curriculum the unintended curriculum the.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Eight School Curriculum.  Three general components of the curriculum: the formal curriculum the formal curriculum the unintended curriculum the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Eight School Curriculum

2  Three general components of the curriculum: the formal curriculum the formal curriculum the unintended curriculum the unintended curriculum extracurricular activities extracurricular activities

3 The Formal Curriculum (explicit curriculum)  What students are taught  The selection of subject matter  The topics included  The depth of coverage for each topic  The textbooks that detail this knowledge  The curriculum guides that lay-out the topics in a systematic way

4 Unintended Curriculum (the implicit curriculum)  Consists of the messages sent to our students about what is valuable.  The omission of topics in the curriculum suggests that certain information is not important.

5 Extracurricular Activities  These include school band, athletics, and theater.  These programs are often removed from the curriculum, to focus on the “basics.”

6 The Struggle for Control of the Curriculum  For over two hundred years the curriculum has been dictated by politicians, businessmen, and religious leaders.  During the Colonial period, the Bible and prayers formed the basis of the curriculum.  During the 1800s the curriculum reflected the prevailing Protestant culture, patriotism and hard work.  In the mid 1900s leaders turned to the schools to address social problems such as drugs and alcohol abuse, pre-marital pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases.  Today, the curriculum has become “exam driven”, mandated by the NCLB and high stakes, multiple choice testing.

7 Structure & Organization of Curriculum Today  Despite the important changes in the curriculum over time, there is little consensus concerning its structure or organization.  We can conceptualize it as a continuum with subject/teacher-centered (authoritarian) organization on one end and learner-centered (democratic) organization on the other.

8 Curriculum Organization Continuum Learner-Centered Integrated Fused Subject-Centered < 

9 Learner-Centered Curriculum (The Democratic Approach)  Focus on learners & their needs  Emphasis on promoting overall growth of learners  Stresses student’s understanding  Develops communication and social skills  Emphasis on cooperative learning  Students and teachers are involved in selection and organization of subject matter and materials  Emphasis on problem solving

10 The Integrated Curriculum  Unites all the subjects under one theme or topic.  In a primary grade the story of “The Little Red Hen”, would include: Social Studies by learning about the farm Social Studies by learning about the farm Science through growing plants Science through growing plants Math with a discussion of measurements used in baking bread Math with a discussion of measurements used in baking bread Health by focusing on eating healthfully Health by focusing on eating healthfully

11 The Fused Curriculum  Less structured  Attempts to blend related subjects  Spelling, reading, writing, and English might be combined into Language Arts.

12 Subject Centered Curriculum (Authoritarian Approach)  Traditional form of the curriculum  Each subject is taught separately  Content is laid out in a highly structured, sequential method  Students are presented with precise information that will appear on the test  All knowledge is imparted to the student by the teacher  Students are held accountable for content mastery

13 Authoritarian v Democratic Instruction  The curricular approach fosters a particular type of instruction  The authoritarian (subject centered) - the teacher is the focus of instruction  The democratic (learner centered) - the teacher serves as a guide with students actively engaged

14 Teacher-Centered Instruction (Authoritarian Approach)  Focus is on instructor  Instructor talks, students listen  Students work alone  Instructor monitors and corrects students  Instructor answers students’ questions  Instructor chooses topics  Instructor evaluates student learning  Classroom is quiet

15 Learner-Centered Instruction (Democratic Approach)  Focus is on both students and instructor  Instructor models; students interact with instructor and one another  Students work in pairs, in groups, or alone depending on the purpose of the activity  Instructor provides feedback/correction when questions arise  Instructor is an information resource  Students have some choice of topics  Students and instructor evaluate learning  Classroom is often noisy and busy

16 Curriculum Tracks  Academic or College Preparation  Career Preparation  Occupational Preparation

17 Expansion of the Contemporary Curriculum  Emergence of an academically challenging kindergarten  Vocational/technical training  The inclusion of more foreign languages  Greater cultural diversity of literature and social studies  The use of schools as an agent of social improvement (Sex Education, Drug Education, etc.)  The strengthening of character and moral education  Emphasis on accountability and standards.

18 Accountability and Standards  Central to the expansion of the contemporary curriculum has been an increased emphasis on accountability and standards.  Most pre-service teachers are required to successfully pass the Praxis I and II exams for state licensure.  In addition, the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) has developed a number of standards that are used to assess beginning teachers.

19 INTASC Standards  Content Pedagogy – The teacher can make the subject matter meaningful.  Student Development – The teacher can provide learning that supports the student’s individual development.  Diverse Learners – The teacher can provide opportunities for diverse learners.  Multiple Instruction Strategies – The teacher uses a variety of instructional strategies.  Motivation and Management – The teacher uses a variety of motivational and classroom management techniques.

20 INTASC Standards (Continued)  Communication – The teachers fosters active and collaborative learning in the classroom.  Planning – The teacher develops an effective instructional plan to help all children learn.  Assessment – The teacher uses formal and informal assessment strategies.  Reflective Practice – The teacher uses reflection and journaling to improve instruction.  School and Community Involvement – The teacher establishes relationships with the colleagues, parents and the community in general.


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