2 School Curriculum Three general components of the curriculum: the formal curriculumthe unintended curriculumextracurricular activities
3 The Formal Curriculum (explicit curriculum) What students are taughtThe selection of subject matterThe topics includedThe depth of coverage for each topicThe textbooks that detail this knowledgeThe curriculum guides that lay-out the topics in a systematic way
4 Unintended Curriculum (the implicit curriculum) Consists of the messages sent to our students about what is valuable.The omission of topics in the curriculum suggests that certain information is not important.
5 Extracurricular Activities These include school band, athletics, and theater.These programs are often removed from the curriculum, to focus on the “basics.”
6 The Struggle for Control of the Curriculum For over two hundred years the curriculum has been dictated by politicians, businessmen, and religious leaders.During the Colonial period, the Bible and prayers formed the basis of the curriculum.During the 1800s the curriculum reflected the prevailing Protestant culture, patriotism and hard work.In the mid 1900s leaders turned to the schools to address social problems such as drugs and alcohol abuse, pre-marital pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases.Today, the curriculum has become “exam driven”, mandated by the NCLB and high stakes, multiple choice testing.
7 Structure & Organization of Curriculum Today Despite the important changes in the curriculum over time, there is little consensus concerning its structure or organization.We can conceptualize it as a continuum with subject/teacher-centered (authoritarian) organization on one end and learner-centered (democratic) organization on the other.
9 Learner-Centered Curriculum (The Democratic Approach) Focus on learners & their needsEmphasis on promoting overall growth of learnersStresses student’s understandingDevelops communication and social skillsEmphasis on cooperative learningStudents and teachers are involved in selection and organization of subject matter and materialsEmphasis on problem solving
10 The Integrated Curriculum Unites all the subjects under one theme or topic.In a primary grade the story of “The Little Red Hen”, would include:Social Studies by learning about the farmScience through growing plantsMath with a discussion of measurements used in baking breadHealth by focusing on eating healthfully
11 The Fused Curriculum Less structured Attempts to blend related subjectsSpelling, reading, writing, and English might be combined into Language Arts.
12 Subject Centered Curriculum (Authoritarian Approach) Traditional form of the curriculumEach subject is taught separatelyContent is laid out in a highly structured, sequential methodStudents are presented with precise information that will appear on the testAll knowledge is imparted to the student by the teacherStudents are held accountable for content mastery
13 Authoritarian v Democratic Instruction The curricular approach fosters a particular type of instructionThe authoritarian (subject centered) - the teacher is the focus of instructionThe democratic (learner centered) - the teacher serves as a guide with students actively engaged
14 Teacher-Centered Instruction (Authoritarian Approach) Focus is on instructorInstructor talks, students listenStudents work aloneInstructor monitors and corrects studentsInstructor answers students’ questionsInstructor chooses topicsInstructor evaluates student learningClassroom is quiet
15 Learner-Centered Instruction (Democratic Approach) Focus is on both students and instructorInstructor models; students interact with instructor and one anotherStudents work in pairs, in groups, or alone depending on the purpose of the activityInstructor provides feedback/correction when questions ariseInstructor is an information resourceStudents have some choice of topicsStudents and instructor evaluate learningClassroom is often noisy and busy
16 Curriculum Tracks Academic or College Preparation Career Preparation Occupational Preparation
17 Expansion of the Contemporary Curriculum Emergence of an academically challenging kindergartenVocational/technical trainingThe inclusion of more foreign languagesGreater cultural diversity of literature and social studiesThe use of schools as an agent of social improvement (Sex Education, Drug Education, etc.)The strengthening of character and moral educationEmphasis on accountability and standards.
18 Accountability and Standards Central to the expansion of the contemporary curriculum has been an increased emphasis on accountability and standards.Most pre-service teachers are required to successfully pass the Praxis I and II exams for state licensure.In addition, the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) has developed a number of standards that are used to assess beginning teachers.
19 INTASC StandardsContent Pedagogy – The teacher can make the subject matter meaningful.Student Development – The teacher can provide learning that supports the student’s individual development.Diverse Learners – The teacher can provide opportunities for diverse learners.Multiple Instruction Strategies – The teacher uses a variety of instructional strategies.Motivation and Management – The teacher uses a variety of motivational and classroom management techniques.
20 INTASC Standards (Continued) Communication – The teachers fosters active and collaborative learning in the classroom.Planning – The teacher develops an effective instructional plan to help all children learn.Assessment – The teacher uses formal and informal assessment strategies.Reflective Practice – The teacher uses reflection and journaling to improve instruction.School and Community Involvement – The teacher establishes relationships with the colleagues, parents and the community in general.