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Reflective Practice Definitions, Models & Methods Certificate in Education Year 2 2008-9.

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Presentation on theme: "Reflective Practice Definitions, Models & Methods Certificate in Education Year 2 2008-9."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reflective Practice Definitions, Models & Methods Certificate in Education Year

2 Reflection: A Definition (1) ‘ Reflection is an important human activity in which people recapture their experience, think about it, mull over & evaluate it. It is this working with experience that is important in learning ’. Boud, D., Keogh, R. & Walker, D. (1985) p 43 Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London: Kogan Page.

3 Reflection: A Definition (2) ‘We learn through critical reflection by putting ourselves into the experience & exploring personal & theoretical knowledge to understand it & view it in different ways. Tate, S. & Sills, M. (eds) (2004) p 126 The Development of Critical Reflection in the Health Professions. London; Higher Education Authority.

4 Reflection: Informal & informal Informal Reflection Involves self- questioningInvolves self- questioning Develops our awareness of our own assumptionsDevelops our awareness of our own assumptions Formal Reflection Draws on research & theoryDraws on research & theory Provides guidance & frameworks for practice.Provides guidance & frameworks for practice.

5 Models of Reflection Dewey’s (1938) 5 Stage Model 1. We identify a problem that is perplexing & ‘felt’ 2. We observe & refine the identified problem to create a fuller understanding 3. We develop a hypothesis or an understanding about the problem, its origins & possible solutions 4. We subject the hypothesis to scrutiny & reasoning 5. We test the hypothesis or understanding in practice Dewey, J. (1938) Logic: The Theory of Inquiry. Troy, MN: Rinehart & Winston.

6 Models of Reflection Schon’s (1983) ‘Reflection in Action’ Reflection in action concerns thinking about something whilst engaged in doing it, having a feeling about something & practicing according to that feeling. This model celebrates the intuitive & artistic approaches that can be brought to uncertain situations. Schon, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner. London: Temple Smith

7 Models of Reflection Kolb’s (1984) Learning Cycle 1. Concrete Experience: The event 2.Reflective observation: Consider what has happened from a variety of perspectives e.g. own feelings, the group’s, an individual student’s view 3. Abstract conceptualisation: Re-package & process your reflections into a theoretical understanding (use theory to analyse the event) 4. Active Experimentation: Armed with this new understanding, you do it again, differently this time. Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning. New Jersey; Prentice Hall

8 Models of Reflection Boud’s (1985) Experiential Learning 1.Return to an event, incident or experience & record it 2.Consider it in detail at an emotional and cognitive level 3.Re-evaluate the event in the light of experience, knowledge & experimentation. Seek to understand the meaning of the experience 4. Plan for what you might change. Boud, D., Keogh, R. & Walker, D. (1985) Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London: Kogan Page.

9 CommitmentAccept responsibility & be open to change CommitmentAccept responsibility & be open to change Contradiction Note tension between actual & desired practice Contradiction Note tension between actual & desired practice Conflict Harness this energy to take appropriate action Conflict Harness this energy to take appropriate action ChallengeConfront your own typical actions, beliefs & attitudes in a non-threatening way ChallengeConfront your own typical actions, beliefs & attitudes in a non-threatening way Catharsis Work through negative feelings Catharsis Work through negative feelings CreationMove beyond old self to novel alternatives CreationMove beyond old self to novel alternatives ConnectionConnect new insights in the world of practice ConnectionConnect new insights in the world of practice Caring Realise desirable practice Caring Realise desirable practice CongruenceReflection as a mirror for caring CongruenceReflection as a mirror for caring ConstructingBuilding personal knowledge in practice ConstructingBuilding personal knowledge in practice Johns, C. (2000). Becoming a Reflective Practitioner. Oxford; Blackwell Models of Reflection John’s Ten C’s of Reflection (2000)

10 Barriers to Reflection Practical Barriers Kolb (1984) sees that to reflect effectively on your experience, you should actively set aside part of your working day to reflect & analyse. Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning. New Jersey; Prentice Hall

11 Barriers to Reflection Psychological Barriers Fear of judgement, fear of criticism, being closed to feedback, defensiveness, professional arrogance.

12 Bridges to Reflection Non-judgemental support, e.g. mentor, managerNon-judgemental support, e.g. mentor, manager Feeling ‘safe’ enough – or we may use ‘expedient’ learning & do what we expect will get us throughFeeling ‘safe’ enough – or we may use ‘expedient’ learning & do what we expect will get us through A role model, e.g. a mentor who reflects on their own practiceA role model, e.g. a mentor who reflects on their own practice Knowledge of as many methods as possibleKnowledge of as many methods as possible As many opportunities as possible for engaging in reflection, e.g. pairs, groupsAs many opportunities as possible for engaging in reflection, e.g. pairs, groups Time & Energy.Time & Energy. Ixer, G. (2003) Developing the relationship between reflective practice & social work values. Journal of Practice Teaching, 5, 1, pp 7-22.

13 Methods of Reflection Narratives A Narrative is a story of an experience or event: Written in the first person, i.e. I felt… I thought … Written in the first person, i.e. I felt… I thought … Learner-centred in that it allows the learner’s voice to be heard Learner-centred in that it allows the learner’s voice to be heard Enables links to be made between personal & professional development Enables links to be made between personal & professional development Can be shared to allow deeper reflection & comparison. Can be shared to allow deeper reflection & comparison.

14 Methods of Reflection Reflective Journal A Reflective Journal focuses on : Your reaction to the event or experienceYour reaction to the event or experience Different ways that you might look at itDifferent ways that you might look at it How the experience links with other experiencesHow the experience links with other experiences How you can understand the experience in the light of theoryHow you can understand the experience in the light of theory What you have learned in the situationWhat you have learned in the situation What you need to learnWhat you need to learn How you might achieve your identified learning goalsHow you might achieve your identified learning goals

15 Methods of Reflection Critical Incident A critical incident is an incident that is in some way significant to the individual recounting it. You should record: What the situation wasWhat the situation was What you did in itWhat you did in it What happened as a result of your actionsWhat happened as a result of your actions A reflection on the situation or event & the process by which it unfolded.A reflection on the situation or event & the process by which it unfolded.

16 The Importance of Reflection Reflection enables us to: Be conscious of our potential for bias & discrimination.Be conscious of our potential for bias & discrimination. Make the best use of the knowledge available.Make the best use of the knowledge available. Challenge & develop the existing professional knowledge baseChallenge & develop the existing professional knowledge base Avoid past mistakesAvoid past mistakes Maximise our own opportunities for learning.Maximise our own opportunities for learning.

17 The Importance of Reflection Unless we make conscious & systematic efforts to critique our own practice: We will be unaware of how & when we are being discriminatoryWe will be unaware of how & when we are being discriminatory We will not make use of the knowledge base developed by our own professionWe will not make use of the knowledge base developed by our own profession We will continue to repeat the same mistakesWe will continue to repeat the same mistakes Our skills will stagnate rather then develop.Our skills will stagnate rather then develop.

18 References Boud, D., Keogh, R. & Walker, D. (1985) Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London: Kogan Page. Dewey, J. (1938) Logic: The Theory of Inquiry. MN: Rinehart & Winston Ixer, G. (2003) Developing the relationship between reflective practice & social work values. Journal of Practice Teaching, 5, 1, pp Johns, C. (2000). Becoming a Reflective Practitioner. Oxford; Blackwell Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning. New Jersey Schon, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner. London: Temple Smith Tate, S. & Sills, M. (eds) (2004) p 126 The Development of Critical Reflection in the Health Professions. London; Higher Education Authority

19 PDJ Entry 1 What are your hopes & aspirations at the start of Year 2? What are your hopes & aspirations at the start of Year 2? Do you foresee any potential problems in fulfilling the course requirements? Do you foresee any potential problems in fulfilling the course requirements? What support would help to overcome these problems? What support would help to overcome these problems?


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