Presentation on theme: "Definitions, Models & Methods Certificate in Education Year"— Presentation transcript:
1 Definitions, Models & Methods Certificate in Education Year 2 2008-9 Reflective PracticeDefinitions, Models & MethodsCertificate in Education Year
2 Reflection: A Definition (1) ‘Reflection is an important human activity in which people recapture their experience, think about it, mull over & evaluate it. It is this working with experience that is important in learning’.Boud, D., Keogh, R. & Walker, D. (1985) p 43 Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London: Kogan Page.
3 Reflection: A Definition (2) ‘We learn through critical reflection by putting ourselves into the experience & exploring personal & theoretical knowledge to understand it & view it in different ways.Tate, S. & Sills, M. (eds) (2004) p 126 The Development of Critical Reflection in the Health Professions. London; Higher Education Authority.
4 Reflection: Informal & informal Informal ReflectionInvolves self- questioningDevelops our awareness of our own assumptionsFormal ReflectionDraws on research & theoryProvides guidance & frameworks for practice.
5 Models of Reflection Dewey’s (1938) 5 Stage Model 1. We identify a problem that is perplexing & ‘felt’2. We observe & refine the identified problem to create a fuller understanding3. We develop a hypothesis or an understanding about the problem, its origins & possible solutions4. We subject the hypothesis to scrutiny & reasoning5. We test the hypothesis or understanding in practiceDewey, J. (1938) Logic: The Theory of Inquiry. Troy, MN: Rinehart & Winston.
6 Models of Reflection Schon’s (1983) ‘Reflection in Action’ Reflection in action concerns thinking about something whilst engaged in doing it, having a feeling about something & practicing according to that feeling.This model celebrates the intuitive & artistic approaches that can be brought to uncertain situations.Schon, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner. London: Temple Smith
7 Models of Reflection Kolb’s (1984) Learning Cycle 1. Concrete Experience: The event2. Reflective observation: Consider what has happened from a variety of perspectives e.g. own feelings, the group’s, an individual student’s view3. Abstract conceptualisation: Re-package & process your reflections into a theoretical understanding (use theory to analyse the event)4. Active Experimentation: Armed with this new understanding, you do it again, differently this time.Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning. New Jersey; Prentice Hall
8 Models of Reflection Boud’s (1985) Experiential Learning 1. Return to an event, incident or experience & record it2. Consider it in detail at an emotional and cognitive level3. Re-evaluate the event in the light of experience, knowledge & experimentation. Seek to understand the meaning of the experience4. Plan for what you might change.Boud, D., Keogh, R. & Walker, D. (1985) Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London: Kogan Page.
9 Models of Reflection John’s Ten C’s of Reflection (2000) Commitment Accept responsibility & be open to changeContradiction Note tension between actual & desired practiceConflict Harness this energy to take appropriate actionChallenge Confront your own typical actions, beliefs & attitudes in a non-threatening wayCatharsis Work through negative feelingsCreation Move beyond old self to novel alternativesConnection Connect new insights in the world of practiceCaring Realise desirable practiceCongruence Reflection as a mirror for caringConstructing Building personal knowledge in practiceJohns, C. (2000). Becoming a Reflective Practitioner. Oxford; Blackwell
10 Barriers to Reflection Practical BarriersKolb (1984) sees that to reflect effectively on your experience, you should actively set aside part of your working day to reflect & analyse.Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning. New Jersey; Prentice Hall
11 Barriers to Reflection Psychological BarriersFear of judgement, fear of criticism, being closed to feedback, defensiveness, professional arrogance.
12 Bridges to Reflection Non-judgemental support, e.g. mentor, manager Feeling ‘safe’ enough – or we may use ‘expedient’ learning & do what we expect will get us throughA role model, e.g. a mentor who reflects on their own practiceKnowledge of as many methods as possibleAs many opportunities as possible for engaging in reflection, e.g. pairs, groupsTime & Energy.Ixer, G. (2003) Developing the relationship between reflective practice & social work values. Journal of Practice Teaching, 5, 1, pp 7-22.
13 Methods of Reflection Narratives A Narrative is a story of an experience or event:Written in the first person, i.e. I felt… I thought …Learner-centred in that it allows the learner’s voice to be heardEnables links to be made between personal & professional developmentCan be shared to allow deeper reflection & comparison.
14 Methods of Reflection Reflective Journal A Reflective Journal focuses on:Your reaction to the event or experienceDifferent ways that you might look at itHow the experience links with other experiencesHow you can understand the experience in the light of theoryWhat you have learned in the situationWhat you need to learnHow you might achieve your identified learning goals
15 Methods of Reflection Critical Incident A critical incident is an incident that is in some way significant to the individual recounting it.You should record:What the situation wasWhat you did in itWhat happened as a result of your actionsA reflection on the situation or event & the process by which it unfolded.
16 The Importance of Reflection Reflection enables us to:Be conscious of our potential for bias & discrimination.Make the best use of the knowledge available.Challenge & develop the existing professional knowledge baseAvoid past mistakesMaximise our own opportunities for learning.
17 The Importance of Reflection Unless we make conscious & systematic efforts to critique our own practice:We will be unaware of how & when we are being discriminatoryWe will not make use of the knowledge base developed by our own professionWe will continue to repeat the same mistakesOur skills will stagnate rather then develop.
18 ReferencesBoud, D., Keogh, R. & Walker, D. (1985) Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London: Kogan Page.Dewey, J. (1938) Logic: The Theory of Inquiry. MN: Rinehart & WinstonIxer, G. (2003) Developing the relationship between reflective practice & social work values. Journal of Practice Teaching, 5, 1, pp 7-22.Johns, C. (2000). Becoming a Reflective Practitioner. Oxford; BlackwellKolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning. New JerseySchon, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner. London: Temple SmithTate, S. & Sills, M. (eds) (2004) p 126 The Development of Critical Reflection in the Health Professions. London; Higher Education Authority
19 PDJ Entry 1 What are your hopes & aspirations at the start of Year 2? Do you foresee any potential problems in fulfilling the course requirements?What support would help to overcome these problems?