Presentation on theme: "Critical Thinking and Reflective Learning"— Presentation transcript:
1 Critical Thinking and Reflective Learning Critical thinking and reflective writing are essential element of personal, professional and academic developmentWhat are they? Why important? Models?Discuss application to academic writingWhat is your experience of these?NB Evidence based practiceGlenys Hook
2 Reflection“…reflection in the context of learning is a generic term for those intellectual and affective activities in which individuals engage to explore their experiences in order to lead to new understandings and appreciations”Boud 1985
3 What is Reflective Practice? Taking the opportunity to think about the work you are doing, as you do it, or after you have done it.‘… looking back on an experience and making sense of it to identify what to do in the future.’(Drew and Bingham, 2001 p221)‘…do something, think about it what you did, come to conclusions about what you did and plan to try again.’(Kolb 1984)
4 ‘ The art of writing things down helps you to clarify your thoughts and emotions, to work out strategies, and to focus on your development and progress…’(Cottrell, 2001 p67)This can be done in a ‘weblog’, or blog – you will need to:reflect on personal, academic and professional developmentFor assessment, keep four entriesStart of module – expectations, skillsReport assessment experiencesPresentation assessment experiencesEnd of module – the full experience!
5 Why should you be reflective practitioners? To enable professional developmentThe ‘knowledge’ economyContinuous professional developmentTo maintain qualityReflecting on what went wrong and why = improvementReflecting on what went well and why = good practicePractitioners have considerable power derived from legislationPractitioners make difficult professional judgments
6 ReflectionReflection then includes hard systematic thinking and a soft initiative insight, leading to a plan of action based on critical evaluation of all the available evidence.Don’t just think about what went wrong/well and why – also plan to improve skills if necessary, or to use those skills in future events
7 AssessmentA 'reflective practitioner' is someone who does something and is automatically reflectiveReviews what happened and asks 'why?', 'how?’, ‘where?’,’ what?‘What skills can you take forward/ need to improve/develop?How will I do this?The best practitioners are constantly learning, evaluating and refining their practice, even after years of experience.The next stage is to apply what you have learned from one situation to the next'why?', 'how?’, ‘where?’,’ what?'What did you do?Why? / How?What went well? Why? What skills can you take forward from this into further study?What went wrong? Why? What skills do you need to improve / develop?How are you going to do this, and by when?
8 What can reflective practice do for me? Enhance your self awarenessDevelop creative answers to difficultiesEnhance your problem solving skillsEnhance your ability to evaluateEnhance your ability to action plan for successMake you an effective managerChallenge political and philosophical aspects of procedures and policies attempt to shape future policy and practiceValue engaging children in reflecting helping them to develop an insight into their world takes the rights of young children seriouslyDeveloping the skills of a reflective practitionerDeveloping critical thinking skillsLearning from observing other people’s practiceLearning through doingManaging diversity and uncertainty
9 Kolb’s Learning Cycle (1984) Taking stockWhat do I know?IndividualPlanningHow can I take my learning further?DevelopmentalReflectionWhat do I need to know?ContextualCurrent skills, knowledge, attributes ->effect progressionFeedback/ evaluationHow much and how well do I understand?Relational
10 Reflection on Practice (Ghayle 1998) Navel GazingLearning from the day’s chaosTalking about what you do with othersLearning from experienceReasoningRemembering whenBeing honest with yourselfBecoming more awareConstructive criticismImproving what you have doneDoing it after a lessonUnderstand your feelingsRe-assembling what you doQuestioning yourselfLetting go of personal prejudiceSomething done by reflective practitionersGaining confidence in your workHard workThe latest bandwagonWhat you do academicallyDwelling on mistakesJustifying what you doPersonal growthHelping you to see what you would or would not do again and whyGood evidence is importantCarefully selectedRepresent the standardDemonstrate competencies of standardPresent professionalPersonally meaningfulPaired and relevantInsightful and relevant
11 Critical Thinking“An investigation whose purpose is to explore a situation, phenomenon, question, or problem to arrive at a hypothesis or conclusion about it that integrates all available information and that can be therefore be convincingly justified” Kurfiss 1988Characteristics of critical thinkers:Active thinkers, knowledgeable of their bases and limitations, fair minded, willing to exert a conscious effort in a themed manner, good communicators, empathic, open minded, honest, independent thinkers, curious and insightful, humble, proactive, organised, systematic, flexible, team players, realistic, creative and committed to excellence Paul 1993CT can be seen to have three interrelated phases (Brookfield 1990)Identifying assumptionsScrutinising accuracy and validityReconstituting to make more inclusive and integrativeContinual asking/ questioning of assumptions and facts -> effective as a SCPHN in rapidly changing environmentSynthesis new knowledge -> PH practiceBuild on existing practicesCT is a cognitive activity. Learning to think in critically analytical and evaluative ways means using mental processes such as attention, categorisation, selection, judgement
12 CT as a process (Cottrell 2005) Identify other people’s positions/ arguments/ conclusionsEvaluate the evidence for alternative points of viewWeigh up opposing arguments/ evidence fairlyRead between the linesIdentify false/ inaccurate assumptionsRecognise techniques to make certain positions appealingReflect on issues in a structured way, bringing logic to bearDraw conclusions- valid/ justifiedPresent a point of viewIdentify other people’s positions/ arguments/ conclusionsEvaluate the evidence for alternative points of viewWeigh up opposing arguments/ evidence fairlyRead between the lines, seeing behind the surfacesIdentify false/ inaccurate assumptionsRecognise techniques to make certain positions appealing than others, eg false logic and persuasive devicesReflect on issues in a structured way, bringing logic to bearDraw conclusions- valid/ justified, based on good evidence and sensible argumentsPresent a point of view in a structured, clear, well reasoned way that convinces othersEnnis (1987)Ability to reflect scepticallyAbility to think in a reasoned way
13 Benefits Stimulates enquiry, increases self awareness. Improved attention and observationIntegration of theory and practiceNew and expanded knowledgeSafe and effective practitionersProtection of the publicContext of practiceChanging needsOwnership and responsibilityAbility to identify key points in a text/ messageStimulates enquiry,increases self awareness.Develops analytical skillsEncourages learningAssists practice teachers in analysing the quality of the student’s competenciesImplications for future practice.Focused readingAbility to respond to appropriate points in a messageActive experience- always developingObservations and reflections are interpreted and translated through cognitive processes to become new and expanded knowledge, thus leading to safe and effective practice in ensuring that the protection of the public is assuredLearning through reflection is always in the context of practice and in recognising that reflective processes lead to a fuller understanding of the work environment and barriers that limit potentialDevelopment of a sense of ownership and responsibility -> responsive and resourcefulRole models of PTs/ PEs- observe, across professionals, settings, different groups -> critically review own practiceBenchmarksLearning through doing
14 Barriers to Critical Thinking (Cottrell 2005) Misunderstanding of what is meant by criticismOver estimating personal reasoning abilitiesLack of methods, strategies, practiceReluctance to critique expertsAffective reasonsMistaking information for understandingInsufficient focus and attention to detailMisunderstanding of what is meant by criticism- criticism does not equate to negative comments. Critical evaluation = identify positives as well as negative aspects- what works as well as what does not. ‘unpleasant’ person... NB Feedback that can lead to improvementOver estimating personal reasoning abilities. Thinking is often automatic. Humans are not always rational beings. Winning an argument does not always mean we have presented the best case – perhaps a poor case not recognised. Imprecise, inaccurate, illogical thinking does not help to develop the mental abilities required for higher level academic and professional workLack of methods, strategies, practice. With practice, most people can develop their skillsReluctance to critique experts. Natural anxiety. It is difficult to be asked to offer criticism of practitioners/ authors who they know to be more expert than themselvesAffective reasons. More than one way of looking at anything. In academic contexts, the implications of a theory can challenge deeply held beliefs and long held assumptions. Difficult to accept irrespective of intelligenceMistaking information for understanding. Learning is a process that develops understanding and insight. Students can misunderstand teaching methods, preferring facts/ answers rather than skillsInsufficient focus and attention to detail. Precision and accuracy which requires good attention to detail. Focus on task in handWhich of the above affect your CT abilities?How do you manage these and will in this year?
15 Models Critical Analysis (Edwards 1998) Re-evaluation (Boud 1985) Reflection in and On Action (Schőn 1987)Gibbs 1998Driscoll 1994Johns 1995ManyCritical analysis- Edwards 1998: agreeing, presenting new point of view, conceding, reformulating, dismissing, rejecting, reconciling, retracting, choosing, originalityRe-evaluation Boud 1985: association (relating new data), Integration (seeking relationship), Validation (determining authenticity), Appropriation (making knowledge one’s own),
16 Reflecting in and on Action (Schőn 1987) In Action:practising, influences decisions and care at that moment,Promotes skilled and flexible responses of the expert practitionerOn Action:After the event, views different interventions, adds knowledgePromotes development of professional skills and knowledge
17 Gibbs reflective cycle ( 1998) Description – what happened?Feelings- what were you thinking and feeling?Evaluation- what was good and bad about the experience?Analysis: what sense can you make of the situation?Conclusion- what else could you have done?Action plan- if it arose again what would you do?
18 Driscoll’s model of reflection ( 1994) WHAT?Returning to the situationSO WHAT?Understanding the contextNOW WHAT?Modifying future outcomes
19 Barriers Matter of choice Adoption of a reflective approach Organisational structure which inhibits rather than encourages reflectionResistance to changeLack of timePast negative experiences/ presumptionsLack of self awareness/ intervening skillsOther’s expectationsNegative factors which impede learning
21 References and Bibliography Boud D, Keogh R& Walker I edit (1985) Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London Kogan PageCottrell S. (2005) Critical Thinking Skills. Basingstoke. Palgrave MacmillanEdwards SL (1998) Critical thinking and analysis: a model for writing assignments. BJN 7(3)Gibbs G (1988) Learning by doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods. London FEUDriscoll JJ (1994) Reflective Practice for Practise- a framework of structured reflection for clinical areas. Senior Nurse 14 (1) 47-50Ghaye A & Ghaye K (1998) Teaching and Learning through Critical Reflective Practice. London Fulton PublishersJohns C (1995) The value of reflective practice for Nursing. JCN 4,
22 References and Bibliography Johns C (2000) Becoming a reflective Practitioner. Oxford Blackwell ScienceKolb DA (1984) Experiential Learning: experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey Prentice Hall.Moon J (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning: theory and practice. London Routledge FalmerOsterman K& Kottkamp R () Reflective Practice for Educators. 2nd edit. California Corwin PressPalmer AM, Burns S& Bulman C (1994) Rrflective Practice in Nursing: the growth of the professional practitioner. Oxford Blackwell ScienceScaife J (2010) Supervising the reflective Practitioner: an essential guide to theory and practice. London RoutledgeSchőn DA (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco Jossey Bass.Thompson S& Thompson N (2008) The Critically Reflective Practitioner. Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan